Military Radars
#1

RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is basically a means of gathering information about distant objects by transmitting electromagnetic waves at them and analyzing the echoes. Radar has been employed on the ground, in air, on the sea and in space. Radar finds a number of applications such as in airport traffic control, military purposes, coastal navigation, meteorology and mapping etc.

The development of the radar technology took place during the World War II in which it was used for detecting the approaching aircraft and then later for many other purposes which finally led to the development of advanced military radars being used these days. Military radars have a highly specialized design to be highly mobile and easily transportable, by air as well as ground.

INTRODUCTION
Military radar should be an early warning, altering along with weapon control functions. It is specially designed to be highly mobile and should be such that it can be deployed within minutes.

Military radar minimizes mutual interference of tasks of both air defenders and friendly air space users. This will result in an increased effectiveness of the combined combat operations. The command and control capabilities of the radar in combination with an effective ground based air defence provide maximum operational effectiveness with a safe, efficient and flexible use of the air space. The increased operational effectiveness is obtained by combining the advantages of centralized air defence management with decentralized air defence control.

ADVANCED FEATURES AND BENEFITS
Typical military radar has the following advanced features and benefits: -

? All-weather day and night capability.
? Multiple target handling and engagement capability.
? Short and fast reaction time between target detection and ready to fire moment.
? Easy to operate and hence low manning requirements and stress reduction under severe conditions.
? Highly mobile system, to be used in all kind of terrain
? Flexible weapon integration, and unlimited number of single air defence weapons can be provided with target data.
? High resolution, which gives excellent target discrimination and accurate tracking.

The identification of the targets as friend or hostile is supported by IFF, which is an integral part of the system.
During the short time when the targets are exposed accurate data must be obtained. A high antenna rotational speed assures early target detection and a high data update rate required for track accuracy.

The radar can use linear (horizontal) polarization in clear weather. During rains, to improve the suppression of rain clutter, provision exists to change to circular polarization at the touch of the button from the display console.
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#2
PRESENTED BY-
MAHESH KUMAR

[attachment=11227]
MILITARY RADAR
What is Radar?

 RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging) is a way to detect and study far off targets by transmitting a radio pulse in the direction of the target and observing the reflection of the wave.
 RADAR
RAdio Detection And Ranging
 Radar Range Measurement
INTRODUCTION
Military radar : Gather information
highly mobile
target synchronisation
weapon control
Features and Benifits
All Weather
Night Capability
Target Handling
Fast Reaction
Easy Operation
High Resolution
Linear/Circular polarized.
RADAR EQUATION
THE SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

 Radar Group: antenna,remote control,AFC, interrogator
 Shelter: display unit, PPI(plane position indicator), processor unit & battery
 Motor generator: power supply
 Terminal Equipment
T.D.R: target data receiver
Parallax correction
Threat evaluation
LINE CONNECTION ADAPTER:
receive data
2-wire telephone line
BLOCK DIAGRAM
SYSTEM FUNCTIONS

 DETECTION: Moving target data displayed over PPI
 TARGET TRACKING: Track of moving target
 DECODING: Transmitted by VHF-FM/line comm.
 Terminal equipment function
 Equipment functions
TARGET DECODING:
 Receive & Decode Inf.
 PARALLAX CORRECTION: x-y to pollar coordinates
 THREAT EVALUATION: Display azimuthal angle of threatning targets
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
 Functional description
 HT UNIT: main voltage to dc voltage
 MAGNETRON: RF power generator
 LO+AFC:
decide frequency of radar pulse
CONCEPT OF LOW PROBABILITY OF INTERCEPTION
 Low probability of Interception (LPI) :
Is to see and not be seen.
 Low enemy’s electronic counter-measures (ECM)
 Use narrow main-lobe and extremely low side-lobes
DETECTION OF LANDMINES
 The technology of ground penetrating radar uses Ultrawideband (UWB) techniques.
 Detectburied landmines as small as 10 square cm
 RADAR GUN
 Antenna
PARABOLIC REFLECTOR:
rotating with a high speed. In the focus of the reflector is a radiator, which emits the pulses, and which receives the RF echo pulses.
 In the waveguide is the polarization shifter, which causes the polarization of the RF energy to be either horizontally or circularly.
DISADVANTAGES
 Time - Radar can take up to 2 seconds to lock on
 Radar has wide beam spread (50 ft diameter over 200 ft range).
 Cannot track if deceleration is greater than one mph/second.
 Large targets close to radar can saturate receiver.
 Hand-held modulation can falsify readings.
CONCLUSION
 Military radars are one of the most important requirements during the wartime
 Used for early detection of ballistic missile and also for accurate target detection and firing.
 Advises the weapon crew which target can be engaged first.
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#3
[attachment=12665]
Topic: - MILITARY RADARS
RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is basically a means of gathering information
about distant objects by transmitting electromagnetic waves at them and analyzing the
echoes. Radar has been employed on the ground, in air, on the sea and in space. Radar
navigation, meteorology and mapping etc. The development of the radar technology took
place during the World War II in which it was used for detecting the approaching aircraft
and then later for many other purposes which finally led to the development of advanced
military radars being used these days. Military radars have a highly specialized design to
be highly mobile and easily transportable, by air as well as ground.
In this paper we will discuss about the advanced features and benefits of
militaryradars,system configuration of a typical military radar, operating the radar, system
functions,various terminal equipments used along with their functions and some of
the important parts of the radar such as transmitter, receiver,
antenna, AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) etc.
MILITARY RADARS
INTRODUCTION

Military radar should be an early warning, altering along with weapon control functions.
It is specially designed to be highly mobile and should be such that it can be deployed within minutes.
Military radar minimizes mutual interference of tasks of both air defenders and friendly air space users. This will result in an increased effectiveness of the combined combat
operations. The command and control capabilities of the radar in combination with an
effective ground based air defence provide maximum operational effectiveness with a
safe, efficient and flexible use of the air space. The increased operational effectiveness is
obtained by combining the advantages of centralized air defence management with
decentralized air defence control.
FEATURES ADVANCED AND BENEFITS
Typical military radar has the following advanced features and benefits: -
 All-weather day and night capability.
 Multiple target handling and engagement capability.
 Short and fast reaction time between target detection and ready to fire moment.
 Easy to operate and hence low manning requirements and stress reduction under
severe conditions.
 Highly mobile system, to be used in all kind of terrain
 Flexible weapon integration, and unlimited number of single air defence weapons can
be provided with target data.
 High resolution, which gives excellent target discrimination and accurate tracking.
The identification of the targets as friend or hostile is supported by IFF, which is an
integral part of the system.
During the short time when the targets are exposed accurate data must be obtained. A
high antenna rotational speed assures early target detection and a high data update rate
required for track accuracy.
The radar can use linear (horizontal) polarization in clear weather. During rains, to
improve the suppression of rain clutter, provision exists to change to circular polarization
at the touch of the button from the display console.
THE SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
A typical military radar system can be split up into three parts:
1) Radargroup
The radargroup consists of antenna, mast unit, remote control, high tension unit, LO/AFC
(Local Oscillator/Automatic Frequency Control) unit, radar transmitter, radar receiver,
video processor, waveguide drier and IFF interrogator.
The transmitter and receiver forms the active part of the system. The integrated radar/IFF
antenna is fitted on the collapsible mast, mounted on the container. The container is
connected by cable to the operator/control shelter.
2) Shelter
Shelter contains display unit, processor unit, TV monitor, colour PPI (Plan Position
indicator), IFF control unit, air conditioner, battery charger with battery, Radio set with
antenna for data link, radio set with antenna for voice transmission i.e. communication,
filter box for radios.
3) Motor generator
The motor generator supplies the power to the whole radar system.
SETS OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT
These are the sets of lightweight man portable units, which can be easily be stacked
together and consists of: -
1) TDR (Target Data Receiver)
The TDR is either connected to a VHF-FM radio receiver or to a LCA to receive
transmitted target data. The TDR itself is intelligent, it performs parallax correction,
threat evaluation and it displays the result in a threat sequence, enabling the weapon
commander to make the correct decision.
2) Radio Receiver or LCA (Line Connection Adapter)
A radio receiver or LCA (with standard 2 wire telephone line) can be used to receive
target data. In principle any VHF-FM radio receiver can be used as a part of the terminal
equipment set. In case line connection is applied, no radio receiver is required. An LCA
nnects the 2-wire telephone line to the TDR cable
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#4
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#5
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#6
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#7
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