Cryogenic Grinding
#1

Cryogenic grinding permits heat-sensitive, thermoplastic, and elastic materials to be economically ground to very small particle sizes. The cryogenic process actually embrittle a material prior to size reduction and controls heat buildup in the grinding equipment. The result is high product quality and system productivity.
Cryogenic grinding involves cooling a material below its embitterment temperature with a cryogenic fluid, typically liquid nitrogen or, in certain applications, carbon dioxide. After cooling, the material is fed into an impact mill where it is reduced in size primarily by brittle fracture
Cryogenic grinding is used for grinding spices, thermoplastics, Elastomers, color concentrates, and similar materials. It is also used to recover a variety of scrap materials, such as factory scrap rubber and scrap tires, and to separate the components in composite materials..
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#2
A seminar report pdf for the above topic can be found at:
http://tkichina6780-sou/6780-3/58.pdf
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#3
please read http://studentbank.in/report-cryogenic-grinding--5420 for Cryogenic Grinding technical information and seminar report
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#4
PRESENTED BY:
Ankit Kr. Methi

[attachment=9068]
ABSTRACT
The science and technology of deep refrigeration processing occurring at temperatures lower than about 150 k. is the field of cryogenics. The name cryogenics is evolved from Greek word ‘kryos’ meaning icy cold. Phenomena that occurs at cryogenic temperatures include liquefaction and solidification of ambient gases; loss of ductility and embrittlement of some structural materials such as carbon steel; increase in thermal conductivity to a maximum value, followed by further decrease in temperature. Cryogenics is the low temperature (150 K) refrigeration. It explains the properties of cryogens used and their principles. Storage methods and handling techniques are covered. Cryogenics are applied in different fields of production, transportation, medicine, aerospace, physics research etc. Rocket propulsion is imparting force to a flying vehicle such as missile or spacecraft. Different types of rockets and their parts are explained. Cryogenics has future applications in many fields like superconductivity and propulsion fields. Cryogenics is being applied to variety of research areas; a few of which are: food processing and refrigeration, space craft life supporting system, space simulation, microbiology, medicine, surgery, electronics, data processing and metal working. Rocket propulsion is the process of imparting a force to flying vehicle such as a missile, by momentum of ejected matter. The matter, called propellant, is stored in the vehicle and ejected at high velocity. In chemical rocket, the propellants are chemical compounds that undergo a chemical combustion reaction releasing the energy for thermodynamically accelerating and ejecting the gaseous reaction products at high velocities. Chemical rocket propulsion is thus differential from other types of rocket propulsion which use nuclear, solar or electrical energy as their power source and which may use mechanism other than adiabatic expansion of a gas for achieving high ejection velocities.
Cryogenic Grinding is also use for pulverizing many materials, cryogenic grinding technology increases productivity and lowers power costs. Many elastic or "soft" materials are very difficult to pulverize, requiring long cycle times and high energy consumption. This combination decreased productivity and increased costs unnecessarily. Cryogenic grinding involves cooling a material below its embrittlement temperature with a cryogenic fluid, typically liquid nitrogen or, in certain applications, carbon dioxide. After cooling, the material is fed into an impact mill where it is reduced in size primarily by brittle fracture.
This process has several benefits:
 Ability to process relatively "soft" or elastic materials that cannot otherwise be ground
 Increased throughput
 Reduced power consumption
 Smaller size particles
 Minimal loss of volatile components
 Lower capital investment
INTRODUCTION
The term “Cryogenics” originates from Greek word which means creation or production by means of cold. As prices for energy and raw materials rise and concern for the environment makes safe waste disposal difficult and Costly, resource recovery becomes a vital matter for today’s business. Cryogenic grinding technology can efficiently grind most tough materials and can also facilitate Cryogenic recycling of tough composite materials and multi component scrap. The heart of this technology is the CRYO-GRIND SYSTEM. It employs a cryogenic process to embrittle and grind materials to achieve consistent particle size for a wide range of products. The cryogenic process also has a unique capability for recycling difficult to separate composite materials.
Cryogenic grinding is a method of powdering herbs at sub-zero temperatures ranging from 0 to minus 70°F. The herbs are frozen with liquid nitrogen as they are being ground. This process does not damage or alter the chemical composition of the plant in any way. Normal grinding processes which do not use a cooling system can reach up to 200°F. These high temperatures can reduce volatile components and heat-sensitive constituents in herbs. The cryogenic grinding process starts with air-dried herbs, rather than freeze-dried herbs.
Solid materials are ground or pulverized by way of hammer mills, attrition mills, granulators or other equipment. A smaller particle size is usually needed to enhance the further processing of the solid, as in mixing with other materials. A finer particle also helps in melting of rubber and plastics for molding. However, many materials are either very soft or very tough at room temperatures. By cooling to cryogenic temperatures with liquid nitrogen, these may be embrittled and easily fractured into small particles.
A scientifically controlled study using four herbs was conducted at Frontier Herbs in the Fall of 1996, comparing cryogenic grinding methods with normal grinding methods. The herbs tested included feverfew, goldenseal, valerian and echinacea. In all cases the cryogenically ground herb contained greater amounts of the constituents tested. Feverfew herb showed the greatest difference, with the cryogenically ground herb containing 21.8% higher levels of parthenolide, the primary active constituent. Valerian root showed an 18.7% increase in valerenic acid when cryogenically ground. Goldenseal root showed a 16.4% increase in berberine and 10.7% increase in hydrastine. Lastly, Echinacea purpurea root showed a 12.1% increase in total phenolic content in the cryogenically ground root. Test results were obtained by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) methods.
Cryogenic grinding was shown to significantly affect active constituent levels in herbs. Test results showed an average increase of 15.6% in constituents tested in four medicinal herbs when they were ground cryogenically. The range was 10.7% to 21.8%, indicating that some herbs are affected more than others by the temperatures at which they're ground.
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#5
to get information about the topic cryogenic grinding full report ,ppt and related topic refer the page link bellow

http://studentbank.in/report-cryogenic-grinding--108

http://studentbank.in/report-cryogenic-grinding--2990

http://studentbank.in/report-cryogenic-grinding

http://studentbank.in/report-cryogenic-g...technology

http://studentbank.in/report-cryogenic-g...0#pid33690

http://studentbank.in/report-cryogenic-g...?pid=37866
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#6
i want ieee paper on vlsi for my innovative work .please tell me how to down load the ieee paper
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