Seminar on Wireless Sensor Networks is an Intelligent Electronic Devices
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Seminar on Wireless Sensor Networks is an Intelligent Electronic Devices


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Abstract

Automation of electric power distribution in a cost-efficient and reliable manner can be accomplished by complete automation of the load dispatch centers and substations on a large scale. For efficient load balancing among the feed lines, a continuous monitoring of parameters, such as voltage, current in the line, temperature, pressure, and oil level of the transformers is required. Currently, automation is done with the help of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). This paper proposes a novel method of communication among the sensors. The paper proposes a co-operative wireless sensor network architecture for communication of the monitored signals and the employment of a virtual MIMO model, which would considerably reduce errors due to transient surge of charges and other interferences. Further, the paper proposes the use of a location aware protocol, GEAR, which is suitable for the sensor network architecture, as compared to the currently used protocols. The appropriate placement of sensors and adoption of additional signaling schemes can also prevent theft of electrical power, which is not a new problem in many areas.

. Introduction[/b

The application of sensor networks is becoming ubiquitous, and this paper introduces a new area of application of the sensor nets viz. in the automation of electrical power distribution. Lack of information at the base station (generally a 33kV sub-station) on the loading and health status of the 11kV/415V transformer and associated feeders is one primary cause of inefficient power distribution. The automation of power distribution can be made efficient in terms of energy consumption, speed, and bandwidth requirements through the application of sensor nets.

[b]Proposed Communication Model


The paper proposes a sensor network-based approach for communication of the control signals, as well as the data exchange. The sensor nodes in the transmission network are grouped to form clusters among themselves and communicate their readings within themselves. Every sensor in the cluster communicates with every other sensor in the cluster or in its vicinity. This transmission is performed only when there is a change in the recorded readings. This approach minimizes the transmission power considerably, and hence, the lifetime of sensors is increased. One or two of the sensors may assume the cluster-head position and aggregate the data sent from other sensors to process it. In case of any fault detection, the appropriate decision may be made at the sensor level itself.

Decentralized Decision Making

Malfunctioning of static relays may be due to transient over-voltages [6]. Besides the protection schemes applied for preventing the communication of these transient overshoots, they may be avoided by the proposed virtual MIMO scheme. The sensor nodes that are in close proximity at a particular unit level are grouped into clusters. One or two nodes among the clustered architecture may assume the position of cluster-head(s). As modeled in reference [5], instead of physically having multiple antennas at the transmitter side to implement the MIMO scheme, the sensor nodes that are close to each other communicate among themselves in a cooperative manner. Each node broadcasts the information it has locally using a time division multiple access scheme. Thus, all nodes have information from all other nodes in the cluster.
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