NanoTechnology (Download Full Seminar Report)
#26
PRESENTED BY
M.R.KUMAR REDDY

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1. INTRODUCTION:
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.
Nanotechnology is a catch-all phrase for materials and devices that operate at the nanoscale. In the metric system of measurement, “Nano” equals a billionth and therefore a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. References to nano materials, nanoelectronics, nano devices and nanopowders simply mean the material or activity can be measured in nanometers. To appreciate the size, a human red blood cell is over 2,000 nanometers long, virtually outside the nanoscale range!
Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. The main unifying theme is the control of matter on a scale smaller than one micrometre, as well as the fabrication of devices on this same length scale. It is a highly multidisciplinary field, drawing from fields such as colloidal science, device physics, and supramolecular chemistry. Much speculation exists as to what new science and technology might result from these lines of research. Some view nanotechnology as a marketing term that describes pre-existing lines of research.
ITRI-NTRC research programs aim to enhance the competitive position of local industries by building on their existing strength and exploring new opportunities. Given the modest size of our economy and resources, we have to be selective in our effort. We seek to develop a platform of nanomaterials and diagnostic/processing technology, which in turn will support a number of industry-facing major applications including nanoelectronics, multi-scale packaging, advanced displays, nanophotonics, high-density data storage, energy applications, traditional industry applications, and biomedical applications. Ten identified major thrusts and their common threads are shown below in a diagrammatic way
2. History of Nanotechnology:
When K. Eric Drexler popularized the word 'nanotechnology' in the 1980's, he was talking about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers wide motors, robot arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a cell. Drexler spent the next ten years describing and analyzing these incredible devices and responding to accusations of science fiction.
3. Conflicting Definitions :
Unfortunately, conflicting definitions of nanotechnology and blurry distinctions between significantly different fields have complicated the effort to understand the differences and develop sensible, effective policy.
The risks of today's nanoscale technologies cannot be treated the same as the risks of longer-term molecular manufacturing. It is a mistake to put them together in one basket for policy consideration—each is important to address, but they offer different problems and will require different solutions. Essentially, anything sufficiently small and interesting can be called nanotechnology.
3.1. Nanotechnology is fundamentally a materials science which has the following characteristics:
1. Research and development at molecular or atomic levels, with lengths ranging between about 1 to 100 nanometers.
2. Creation and use of systems, devices, and structures which have special functions or properties because of their small size.
3. Ability to control or manipulate matter on a molecular or atomic scale.
Nanotechnology also known as Nanotech impacts all high-tech fields and disciplines, and research activities in this leading edge science can be classified as follows:
1. Nanomaterials - physical substances with structural dimensions between 1 and 100 nm.
2. Nanotools - devices that manipulate matter at the atomic or nano scale.
3. Nanodevices - systems with nanostructured components that perform some assigned function other than manipulating nano or atomic scale matter.
Private industry, academia, and government laboratories are working together to advance research in nanotechnology because its potential applications are many and varied. Business Week recently featured an informative article, entitled How to Invest in Nanotech, and this site offers convenient access to information about diverse nanotechnology investment opportunities.
4. Four Generations:
Mihail Roco of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described four generations of nanotechnology development. The current era, as Roco depicts it, is that of passive nanostructures, materials designed to perform one task. The second phase, which we are just entering, introduces active nanostructures for multitasking; for example, actuators, drug delivery devices, and sensors. The third generation is expected to begin emerging around 2010 and will feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. A few years after that, the first integrated nanosystems, functioning much like a mammalian cell with hierarchical systems within systems, are expected to be developed.
4.1. How are nanotechnologies used today?
Despite views that nanotechnology is a far-fetched idea with no near-term applications, nanoparticles, nanopowders and nanotubes already play a significant role in industry, environmental remediation, medicine, science and even in the household. The majority of nanotechnologies commercially used today are based on such nano-sized particles.
Rare earth nanoparticles and rare earth oxide nanopowders are finding application in uses as varied as enhanced fiber optic amplification (EDFA) to the removal of phosphate in the blood of patients with Hyperphosphatemia. Iron Nanoparticles, Iron Oxide Nanopowder, Cobalt Nanoparticles, and several other elemental nanoparticles and alloys form a group of “Magnetic Nanoparticles” with promising application in medical treatment of cancer, magnetic storage and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Typical AFM setup. A micro fabricated cantilever with a sharp tip is deflected by features on a sample surface, much like in a phonograph but on a much smaller scale. A laser beam reflects off the backside of the cantilever into a set of photo detectors, allowing the deflection to be measured and assembled into an image of the surface.
Research into NanoMaterials spans a significant spectrum of areas. Advanced material companies are producing innovative products in areas such as coatings, industrial powders, chemicals, and carbon nanotubes. Today, real world application of NanoTechnology exists in commercial business. About two-dozen serious applications of NanoMaterials and process have been fielded ranging from non-scuff floor tile to high strength brackets for running boards on vehicles to high temperature protective materials for spacecraft. While NanoMaterials are a significant portion of today's focus, several other areas are equally as promising.
4.2. Trends & Impact of NanoTechnology
NanoTechnology has the potential to become a more significant revolutionary force for business than the industrial revolution or the information technology revolution.In fact, many believe that the combined impact of both the industrial and information revolution may approach the magnitude of change that could result from the commercialization of NanoTechnology.Currently, NanoTechnology is moving from the basic research stage of its evolution into the applied research stage of technology maturity.Today there are several NanoTechnology companies already being traded on the public marketplace. As this technology evolves and matures, you can expect to see many more companies enter this space.
Today's manufacturing methods are very crude at the molecular level. Casting, grinding, milling, and even lithography move atoms in mass.It is like trying to make things out of LEGO blocks with boxing gloves on your hands.Yes, you can push the LEGO blocks into great heaps and pile them up; but you cannot really snap them together the way you would like.
5. Benefits of Nanotechnology:
Nanotechnology can solve many of the world's current problems. Some of the benefits of nanotechnology are stated below:
 Advanced nanotech can solve many human problems.
Technology is not a panacea. However, it can be extremely useful in solving many kinds of problems. Improved housing and plumbing will increase health. More efficient agriculture and industry save water, land, materials, and labor, and reduce pollution. Access to information, education, and communication provides many opportunities for self improvement, economic efficiency, and participatory government. Cheap, reliable power is vital for the use of other technologies and provides many conveniences. Today, technology relies on distributed manufacturing, which requires many specialized materials and machines and highly trained labor.
 Many diverse problems are related to water
A few basic problems create vast amounts of suffering and tragedy. Much industry can be directly replaced by nanotechnology. Agriculture can be moved into greenhouses. Residential water can be treated and recycled. Water-related diseases kill thousands, perhaps tens of thousands, of children each day. This is entirely preventable with basic technology, cheap to manufacture—if the factories are cheap and portable.
 Nano Lasers in Communication:
The complex interaction between light and nanometer structures, like wires, has possibilities as new technology for devices and sensors. NAS researchers are studying light emission from a semiconductor nanowire-typically 10-100 nanometers wide and a few micrometers long-which functions as a laser. Lasers made from arrays of these wires have many potential applications in communications and sensing for NASA.
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#27
presented by:
A.VISWANATH GOWD
Y.SREEKANTH REDDY

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ABSTRACT
A design concept for nanowire-based sensors and arrays is described. The fabrication technique involves electrodeposition to directly grow nanowires between patterned thin film contact electrodes. To prove our concept, we have electrodeposited 1-um diameter Pd single wires and small arrays. To demonstrate nanowire sensors, we have electrochemically grown metal (Pd, Au, Pt), metal oxide (Sb2O3), and conducting polymer (polyaniline) bundled nanowires. Using Pt bundled nanowires surface modified with glucose oxidase, we have demonstrated glucose detection as a demonstration of a biomolecular sensor.
1. INTRODUCTION
There is a great deal of interest in nanostructures for potential applications in such areas as electronics, biochemistry, materials, and medicine. One-dimensional structured materials, such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are candidate materials for these applications of nanotechnology. Many researchers have developed nanosensors based on Si nanowires or CNTs. For example, Cui et al. demonstrated that Si nanowire-based sensors are capable of highly sensitive and selective real-time detection of biomolecules. Li et al. reported molecular detection based on electrodeposited copper nanowires grown between nano-gap electrodes. Star et al. demonstrated CNT based FET devices. However, these building blocks have some limitations. Existing fabrication methods for CNTs produce mixtures of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes, which make them difficult to use as sensing materials since metallic and semiconducting nanowires will function differently. In addition, surface modification methods for CNTs, which are essential to prepare interfaces for selectively binding a wide range of chemical and biological analytes are not well established. Silicon nanowires are produced by a laser-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth method or a supercritical fluid solution method. Even though Si nanowires are good sensing materials, they have intrinsic drawbacks of process variability and low throughput. These methods also require that nanowires and nanotubes must be manually aligned and then electrically connected by a post-growth assembly process.
Electrodeposited nanowire sensors can overcome the limitations of both CNTs and Si nanowires due to the relative ease of fabrication and surface modification. A wide range of sensing materials can be deposited by electrodeposition, including metals, alloys, metal oxides, semiconductors, and conducting polymers. Electrodeposition allows a high degree of specificity in location and chemical identity of a deposit, as well as control of thickness. The operating principle of nanowire-based biochemical sensors is the detection of low molecular concentrations by measuring changes in the electrical conductance of nanowires produced by the adsorption or bioreaction of the chemical species. We report an approach to growing nanowires for sensor arrays using standard semiconductor device fabrication techniques. This technique can potentially produce individually addressable nanowire sensor arrays with the capability of sensing multiple chemical species simultaneously.
This technique involves electrodeposition to directly grow nanowires between patterned thin film contact electrodes, eliminating expensive and tedious post-growth device assembly. Our proposed nanowire-based sensor will also potentially require low power consumption compare to 100 nW for Pd mesowire arrays. In this work, electrodeposition of single wires and small arrays with wire diameters of
1 um is demonstrated, and glucose sensors based on surface-modified nanowire bundles are demonstrated. Table 1 compares state-of-the art nanosensors with the nanowire array sensor concept described here.
2. FABRICATION
Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of electrodeposited wires. The processes used in this work, including cleaning, dry etching, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), lithography, dielectric deposition, e-beam lithography, metallization and electrochemical deposition, are standard semiconductor device fabrication techniques. Si (100) is cleaned with standard RCA cleaning and a 1-um-thick layer of low stress Si3N4 insulator is deposited using LPCVD. A 300 nm-thick Ti-Au metal film is deposited and patterned using a liftoff technique to form the contact layer. SiO is then thermally deposited and the electrolyte channel is e-beam patterned and etched using reactive ion etching. Electrochemical deposition is performed by adding one drop of electroplating solution on top of the channel. When an electrical potential is applied between the electrodes, a wire grows from cathode to anode through the channel, which also limits branching dendritic growth.
The dimensions of the nanowire, including its length and diameter, are predetermined by the width of the nanochannel and the distance between electrodes.
To demonstrate the concept, Pd wires with 1 um diameter and 3 um and 7 um lengths are electrodeposited. Two different electrodeposition solutions (palladium chloride acid bath and palladium p-salt alkaline bath) were initially considered. However, the preliminary experimental results indicate that Pd p-salt solution produces a smoother deposit with minimum dendrite formation at higher cathodic potentials. The Pd electrolyte consists of Pd(NH2)2(NO2)2 (10g/l), and NH4NH2SO3 (100 g/l). The pH of the solution is adjusted to 8.0 by addition of H3NO3S and NaOH. Figure 2 shows a cyclic voltammogram of Pd
p-salt plating solution using a two electrode configuration. The reduction peak of Pd ions to Pd is observed at –1.7 V. When a more negative potential than –1.7 V is applied to the electrode, a significant increase in the current density is observed which is due to H2 gas evolution. A computer controlled EG&G 273 potentiostat/galvanostat is used to grow Pd wires in galvanostatic mode. The applied currents are –10 nA, -20 nA, –100 nA, and –1000 nA and corresponding potentials are monitored. Figure 3 shows patterned electrode arrays before electrodeposition of wires with 1 um and 500 nm diameters.
The electrolyte channel length is 70 um and electrode gap is 3 um, respectively. Figure 4(a) shows cathode potential responses during electrodeposition of a Pd wire at an applied current of –1000 nA grown between electrodes with no electrolyte channel. The cathode potential initially approaches a negative value steeply, followed by a gradual increase in the potential as the Pd wire grows from cathode to anode. When a wire is fully grown and makes contact to the anode, the potential drops to zero and the applied potential is turned off. Lower cathode potentials and shorter deposition times are observed at a higher deposition current as expected due to a higher deposition rate. The 7 um long Pd wires were grown within 1500 seconds with –1000 nA. Figure 4(b) shows the changes in electrical resistance between Au electrodes during Pd wire growth at –1000 nA. As expected, the electrical resistance gradually decreases as the Pd wire grows from cathode to anode and reduces the gap. When the Pd wire makes contact to the anode, the measured resistance is less than 100 in the liquid electrolyte. Optical images of electrochemically grown Pd wires between Au electrodes are shown in Fig. 5. The length of the wire is approximately 7 um and the width is approximately 1 um. Fig. 5(b) shows double Pd wires directly grown between common Au electrodes.
Figure 3. Electrode arrays with e-beam patterned electrolyte channels before the growth of (a) 1 um width and 3 um length wires (2 electrodes), (b) 1um width and 3 um length (3 electrodes), © 500 nm width and 3 um length (2 electrodes), and (d) 500 nm width and 3 um length (3 electrodes).
We have thus successfully demonstrated growth of 1 um diameter wires and the growth of wires with diameters smaller than 1 um is currently under investigation. These small arrays are designed for one, two, or three sensing elements. Reducing the width of the e-beam patterned channels, which is currently under investigation, can further reduce the width of electrodeposited wires to a few tens of nm. We are also
currently investigating utilizing different electrolytes to fabricate small arrays with .wires of different compositions, and hence different chemical sensing capabilities. (5)
Figure 4. Measured electrical properties during deposition: (a) Cathode potential responses as a function of deposition time deposition potential versus deposition time and (b) Resistance change between anode and cathode as a function of time: Deposition current was kept at –1000 nA..
3. NANOWIRE SENSORS: DEMONSTRATION AND CONCEPTS
While the ultimate goal is to fabricate individually addressable nanowire sensor arrays, single sensors based on nanowire bundles are also being investigated. This approach allows development of nanowire surface modification techniques and characterization of sensor sensitivity and selectivity in parallel with the development of the nanowire array fabrication.
Figure 5. Optimal images of electrodeposited Pd wires grown between electrodes: (A) single wire, and (B) double wires grown between common electrodes.
Bundled Nanowire Fabrication Pt bundled nanowires are fabricated using the electrochemical method. Anodic templates with porosity of 0.43 (Whatman Inc. – 100 electrodeposition, gold was evaporated (200 nm thick) on one side of the alumina template and served as the conductive seed layer. Carbon paste was used to connect the alumina nanotemplate with the seed layer to the silicon substrate. The platinum
plating solution consists of 1 g/l. H2PtCl6 + 176.4 g/l H2SO4. The solution pH was less than 1 and the deposition current density was fixed at 35 mA cm-2 The length of the nanowires was controlled by adjusting deposition times. After electrodeposition of nanowires, concentrated KOH or NaOH (20 v/v %) was used to remove the anodized alumina to free the nanowires. Other bundled nanowires (Pd, Sb/Sb2O3, , Au, and polyaniline) have been fabricated using same method but using different electrolyte solutions. For example, Pd bundled nanowires were electrodeposited from 10 g/l Pd(NH2)2(NO2)2 and 100 g/l ammonium sulfamate and Sb/Sb2O3 bundled nanowires were electrodeposited from 0.03 M potaasium antimonyl tartrate and 0.435 M of sodium tartrate dihydrate. The pH of Pd and Sb/Sb2O3 plating solutions was adjusted to 8 and 7, respectively. In both case, the applied current density was fixed at 10 mA cm-2. Gold and polyaniline were electrodeposited from gold sulfite and aniline-sulfuric acid baths, respectively.
Biochemical Sensors
Amperometric biosensors can be created by electronically coupling the appropriate redox enzymes to a metal electrode modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to facilitate enzyme immobilization and to reject interfering species. Conductometric biosensors are assembled by entrapping the relevant enzymes in conjugated polymer nanowires (e.g., polyaniline) on an electrode. Both approaches entail straightforward synthesis protocols, yet the SAM-based system on Au provides for better interferent rejection while the conductometric system gives substantial signal amplification due to the large change in polymer conductivity in response to small perturbations in its microenvironment. Amperometric glutamate biosensors have been described based on the enzyme glutamate oxidase. (gluOX)10. Glutamate oxidase, which can be immobilized on the electrode surface by a variety of techniques, catalyzes the oxidation of the amino acid glutamate to A-ketoglutarate and ammonia using oxygen as the electron acceptor.
L-glutamate + O2 + H2O  A-ketoglutarate +NH4 + H2O2,
The hydrogen peroxide generated as a result of the enzyme catalyzed reaction can be oxidized at the electrode surface to give a measurable current that can be correlated to the glutamate concentration.
Amperometric Current Density ( uA/cm )2
Figure 6. Comparison between amperometric response of glucose sensor constructed on Pt (_) thin film and (_) bundled nanowires. The Pt bundled nanowires have a high roughness factor (RF), i.e. it has a high effective surface area. The current was measured at +0.7 V vs Ag/AgCl at room temperature. To prove our concept, we have demonstrated a glucose sensor using bundled Pt nanowires because the fundamentals of glucose and glutamate nanowire sensors are similar. An ultrasensitive glucose amperometric sensor was constructed by immobilizing glucose oxidase on Pt bundled nanowires. Glucose oxidase was immobilized by a Galvanostatic process, in which a constant current density of 382 _A/cm2 for 250 seconds was applied. The solution is 2000 U/ml glucose oxidase, 200mM pyrrole using 100mM KCl as the supporting electrolyte. This electrochemically-assisted enzyme immobilization technique not only controls the polymer thickness accurately, but also enables a precise enzyme deposition on small electrodes. Figure 6 compares the amperometric responses of glucose sensors constructed on a Pt thin film and on Pt bundled nanowires. All the measurements were taken at a working potential of 0.7 V vs Ag/AgCl at room temperature. The response to glucose is tremendously improved by three orders of magnitude by using Pt nanowire as sensor material. This is attributed to the ultrahigh surface area of Pt nanowire bundle, which was determined by cyclic voltammogram in 1N H2SO4 media.
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#28
Presented by:-
Chinmay s. joshi

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Introduction
• Nanotechnology is derived from the greek word “dwarf”.
• Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale.This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced.
• Nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up,using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete,high performance products
APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
 ELECTRONICS
 ENERGY
 AUTOMOBILES
 SPORTS AND TOYS
 TEXTILES
 COSMETICS
 DOMESTIC APPLIANCES
 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MEDICAL FIELD
 SPACE AND DEFENSE
ELECTRONICS
• THE COATINGS USED ON TV SCREENS IS MADE UP OF NANOPARTICLES FOR THE BETTER PROPERTIES IN TERMS OF COLOUR QUALITY.
ENERGY
• NATURAL ENERGY RESOURCES LIKE COAL,NATURAL GAS,OIL ARE LIMITED AND DEPLETING VERY FAST.
• THE FUTURE GENERATIONS ARE LOOKING FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES LIKE SOLAR ENERGY OR HYDROGEN BASED FUEL,AND THE SCIENTISTS ARE HOPING TO MAKE EFFICIENT SOLAR CELLS USING NANOMATERIALS.
AUTOMOBILES
• A SIMPLE CAR IS MADE UP OF LARGE NUMBER OF PARTS AND MATERIALS WHOSE BODY AND VARIOUS STRUCTURAL PARTS ARE MADE UP OF STEEL,SOME ALLOYS,RUBBERS PLASTICS.
• WHEREAS STEEL DOES NOT PROVIDE EXCELLENT MECHANICAL STRENGTH, SO BY USING NANOPARTICLES WE CAN REPLACE NANOTUBE COMPOSITES WITH STEEL.
SPORTS AND TOYS
• TENNIS BALLS USING NANOCLAY ARE ABLE TO FILL PORES IN BETTER WAY AND TRAP THE AIR PRESSURE INSIDE FOR INCRESING THE LIFE OF BALL.INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS HAVE ALSO ACCEPTED SUCH TYPE OF BALLS FOR THEIR TOURNAMENTS.
• NOWADAYS NANOTECHNOLOY BASED MOTORS ARE USED BY TOY INDUSTRY FOR MAKING THEM SMOOTH AND SWIFT.
TEXTILE
• THERE ARE SOME CLOTHES PRODUCED WHICH WOULD GIVE PLEASANT LOOK OF SYNTHETIC FIBREAND ALSO COMFORT OF COTTON.
• SPECIAL THREADS AND DYES ARE USED IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY ARE PRODUCTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY.
• THESE CLOTHES DO NOT REQUIRE IRONING NOR FREQUENT CLEANING.
COSMETICS
• ZINC OXIDE AND TITANIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES OF FAIRLY UNIFORM SIZE ARE ABLE TO ABSORB ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AND PROTECT THE SKIN.
DOMESTIC APPLIANCES
• USE OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IS MADE IN REFRIGERATORS,AIR PURIFIERS
• SILVER NANOPARTICLES HAS A LONGER TIME OF ANTIBACTERIALL PROPERTY.
• FOOD IN REFRIGERATORS CAN REMAIN FRESH AND PREVENT FUNGAL GROWTH FOR LONGER TIME THAN ORDINARY REFRIGERATORS.
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MEDICAL FIELD
• Medical nanotechnology also makes cell repair on a molecular level possible, and provides a number of opportunities for medication administration. Drugs developed through nanotechnology could directly penetrate cells, for example, or nanoparticles could be designed to target cancer cells, delivering medication or providing a focal point for radiation. Medical nanotechnology can also be used to make biosensors which can be implanted into patients for monitoring, along with medical devices which are designed to be permanently implanted such as pacemakers.
SPACE AND DEFENSE
• Including layers of bio-nano robots in spacesuits. The outer layer of bio-nano robots would respond to damages to the spacesuit, for example to seal up punctures. An inner layer of bio-nano robots could respond if the astronaut was in trouble, for example by providing drugs in a medical emergency.
Advantages
• Nanotechnology can actually revolutionize a lot of electronic products, procedures, and applications. The areas that benefit from the continued development of nanotechnology when it comes to electronic products include nano transistors, nano diodes, OLED, plasma displays, quantum computers, and many more.
• Nanotechnology can also benefit the energy sector. The development of more effective energy-producing, energy-absorbing, and energy storage products in smaller and more efficient devices is possible with this technology. Such items like batteries, fuel cells, and solar cells can be built smaller but can be made to be more effective with this technology.
• Another industry that can benefit from nanotechnology is the manufacturing sector that will need materials like nanotubes, aerogels, nano particles, and other similar items to produce their products with. These materials are often stronger, more durable, and lighter than those that are not produced with the help of nanotechnology.
Disadvantages
• You will also find that the development of nanotechnology can also bring about the crash of certain markets due to the lowering of the value of oil and diamonds due to the possibility of developing alternative sources of energy that are more efficient and won’t require the use of fossil fuels. This can also mean that since people can now develop products at the molecular level, diamonds will also lose its value since it can now be mass produced.
• Atomic weapons can now be more accessible and made to be more powerful and more destructive. These can also become more accessible with nanotechnology.
• Since these particles are very small, problems can actually arise from the inhalation of these minute particles, much like the problems a person gets from inhaling minute asbestos particles.
• Presently, nanotechnology is very expensive and developing it can cost you a lot of money. It is also pretty difficult to manufacture, which is probably why products made with nanotechnology are more expensive.
Future use of Nanotechnology
• Nanotechnology is expected to have an impact on nearly every industry. The U.S. National Science Foundation has predicted that the global market for nanotechnologies will reach $1 trillion or more within 20 years. The research community is actively pursuing hundreds of applications in nanomaterials, nanoelectronics, and bionanotechnology.
Conclusion
• Nanotechnology offers the ability to build large numbers of products that are incredibly powerful by today's standards. This possibility creates both opportunity and risk. The problem of minimizing the risk is not simple; excessive restriction creates black markets, which in this context implies unrestricted nanofabrication. Selecting the proper level of restriction is likely to pose a difficult challenge.
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#29
we want more information with more diagrams and u have posted that nanotechnology is a vast process y u have written in just one paragraph
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#30

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#31
USES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

Despite views that nanotechnology is a far-fetched idea with no near-term applications, nanotechnology has already established a beachhead in several industries. The majority of nanotechnologies commercially used today are based on nano-sized particles. For example, nanoscale ZnO has been used for its UV absorbing properties to create sunscreen.

Nanoparticles have also made a breakthrough in the clothing industry

Small whisker-like particles are used to coat the surface fibers of the fabric, creating a stain-repelling surface. Healthcare companies are now marketing antimicrobial bandages coated with silver nanocrystals. Meanwhile, silver Nanoparticles on the surfaces of many new refrigerators, air conditioners, and laundry machines act as antibacterial and antifungal agents.
Semiconductor particles, or quantum dots, are currently being manufactured. These fluorescent Nanoparticles are being used by biologists to stain and label cellular components. By changing the size of the quantum dot the color emitted can be controlled. With a single light source, one can see the entire range of visible colors, an advantage over traditional organic dyes.

Nanocomposites are also seeing commercial use. Plastic Nanocomposites are used for strong, lighter, and rust-proof car components. For instance, Toyota recently began using Nanocomposites in bumpers that makes them 60% lighter and twice as resistant to denting and scratching.

The biomedical field is manufacturing artificial bone composites from nanocrystalline calcium phosphates. These composites are made of the same mineral as natural bone, yet have strength in compression equal to stainless steel.

TYPES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

Carbon nanotubes:

These are fullerene-related structures which consist of graphene cylinders closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings. They were discovered in 1991 by the Japanese electron microscopist Sumio Iijima who was studying the material deposited on the cathode during the arc-evaporation synthesis of fullerenes.
These highly uniform tubes had a greater tendency to form aligned bundles than those prepared using arc-evaporation, and led Smalley to christen the bundles nanotubes "ropes". Initial experiments indicated that the rope samples contained a very high proportion of nanotubes with a specific armchair structure.

[b]Nanohorns:[/b]

Single-walled carbon cones with morphologies similar to those of nanotubes caps were first prepared by Peter Harris, Edman Tsang and colleagues in 1994. They were produced by high temperature heat treatments of fullerene soot they could also be produced by laser ablation of graphite, and gave them the name "Nanohorns".
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#32
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#33

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#34
NanoTechnology
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Benefits of Molecular Manufacturing
Overview: Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) manufacturing can solve many of the world's current problems. For example, water shortage is a serious and growing problem. Most water is used for industry and agriculture; both of these requirements would be greatly reduced by products made by molecular manufacturing. Infectious disease is a continuing scourge in many parts of the world. Simple products like pipes, filters, and mosquito nets can greatly reduce this problem.


Nanotech can help the environment. Environmental degradation is a serious problem with many sources and causes. One of the biggest causes is farming. Greenhouses can greatly reduce water use, land use, runoff, and topsoil loss. Mining is another serious problem. When most structure and function can be built out of carbon and hydrogen, there will be far less use for minerals, and mining operations can be mostly shut down. Manufacturing technologies that pollute can also be scaled back. In general, improved technology allows operations that pollute to be more compact and contained, and cheap manufacturing allows improvements to be deployed rapidly at low cost. Storable solar energy will reduce ash, soot, hydrocarbon, NOx, and CO2 emissions, as well as oil spills. In most cases, there will be strong economic incentives to adopt newer,


Dangers of Molecular Manufacturing
Overview: Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) will be a significant breakthrough, comparable perhaps to the Industrial Revolution—but compressed into a few years. This has the potential to disrupt many aspects of society and politics. The power of the technology may cause two competing nations to enter a disruptive and unstable arms race. Weapons and surveillance devices could be made small, cheap, powerful, and very numerous. Cheap manufacturing and duplication of designs could lead to economic upheaval. Overuse of inexpensive products could cause widespread environmental damage. Attempts to control these and other risks may lead to abusive restrictions, or create demand for a black market that would be very risky and almost impossible to stop; small nanofactories will be very easy to smuggle, and fully dangerous
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#35
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#36
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#37
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#38
NanoTechnology


.doc   nanotechnology.doc (Size: 538 KB / Downloads: 1)


Possibilities

The current global enthusiasm for nanotechnology is an offshoot of several late 20th century advances. Of particular importance was the ability to manipulate individual atoms in a controlled fashion—a sort of atomic bricklaying—by techniques such as scanning probe microscopy. Initial successes in producing significant amounts of silver and gold nanoparticles helped to draw even more attention, as did the discovery that materials and devices on the atomic and molecular scales have new and useful properties due in part to surface and quantum effects.


Increasingly Integrated Technologies.

The technologies associated with materials, devices, and systems were once relatively separate, but integration has become the ideal. First, transistors were made into ICs. Next came the integration of micro-optics and micromechanics into devices that were packaged individually and mounted on PCBs. The use of flip chips (where the chip is the package), and placement of passive components within PCBs, are blurring the distinction between devices and systems. The high levels of integration made possible by nanotechnology has made the (very smart) material essentially the device and possibly also the system. Larry Bock, chief executive for Nanosys, recently noted that "nanotech takes the complexity out of the system and puts it in the material".


Manufacturing Advances

Recent advances in top-down manufacturing processes have spurred both micro- and nanotechnologies. Makers of leading-edge ICs use lithography, etching, and deposition to sculpt a substrate such as silicon and build structures on it. Conventional microelectronics has approached the nanometer scale—line widths in chips are near the 100 nm level and are continuing to shrink. MEMS devices are constructed in a similar top-down process. As these processes begin working on smaller and smaller dimensions, they can be used to make a variety of nanotechnology components, much as a large lathe can be used to make small parts in a machine shop.


Computational Design
Recently developed experimental tools, notably synchrotron X-radiation and nuclear magnetic resonance, have revealed the atomic structures of many complex molecules. But this knowledge is not enough; we need to understand the interactions of atoms and molecules in the recognition and sometimes the transduction stages of sensing. The availability of powerful computers and algorithms for simulating nano-scale interactions means that we can design nanosensors computationally, and not just experimentally, by using the molecular dynamics codes and calculations that are already fundamental tools in nanotechnology.


Chemical Sensors
Various nanotube-based gas sensors have been described in the past few years. Modi et al. have developed a miniaturized gas ionization detector based on CNTs. The sensor could be used for gas chromatography.


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#39
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#40

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