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One of the costliest item, but also
most profitable food items

Meat Inspection

• Inspection is required at several stages
of meat processing to ensure:

– Animals are free from disease
– Farms are operated according to
appropriate standards for safety,
cleanliness, and health
– Meat is wholesome and fit for human


• Quality is based on:

– Overall shape of the carcass
– Ration of fat to lean meat
– Ration of meat to bone
– Color of the meat
– Amount of fat present in the lean flesh

• Known as marbling in beef


• A carcass need to cut into manageable

– Sides - carcass split in 2 halves by cutting down
the length of the backbone
– Quarters - the side is cut into 2 pieces called the
forequarter and the hindquarter
– Saddles - alternative way to cut a carcass into 2
portions (foresaddle & hindsaddle) by cutting
across the belly (usually used for veal)

• Quarters or saddles are then cut into primal
• Primal cuts are broken down in subprimal

– These are trimmed, packed, and sold to
restaurants or butcher shops

• Subprimals are broken down to:

– Fabrication - breaking down the subprimals into
portion-sized cuts by the store or restaurant
– Retail cuts -breaking down the subprimals into
smaller pieces at the packing plant

• Boxed Meat: meat that is fabricated to a
specific point and then packed and boxed

Making cutlets

1. Trim meat to remove visible fat, tendons, gristle,
2. Cut pieces same thickness & weight.
3. Place meat between 2 layers of plastic wrap.
4. Pound meat using a pounding, pushing motion to
pound cutlets to an even thickness all over. Do not
tear or overstretch meat.
5. Arrange the pounded cutlets on a parchment-lined

sheet pan. Keep cold until ready to cook.

Types of Meat

• Flavor, color and texture of meat is
influenced by:

– Amount of exercise the muscle receivees
– Animal’s age
– Type of feed it received
– The animal breed


• Typically young males (steers) or
females (heifers) as older animals will
be less tender
• Specialty beef

– Kobe from Japan
– Limousin from France
– Certified Angus, natural beef, organic beef
from the US

– Process that gives meat a darker color, more
tender texture, and fuller flavor
– Wet aging is when boneless cuts are vacuum-
packed and stored under refrigeration for
several weeks
– Dry aging use for side, forequarter or
hindquarter that are hung in a climate-controlled
– Aged beef is more expensive due to the
additional processing

– Prime, choice, select, standard, commercial,
utility, cutter, canner
– Grades lower than select used for processed

– Most tender, juicy, and flavorful
– Has abundant marbling which enhances flavor
and juiciness
– Sold to hotels, restaurants, butcher shops
– Excellent for dry cooking methods

– Most popular quality
– Sold in retail stores
– Tender, juicy and flavorful
– Less marbling than Prime

– Uniform in quality
– Becoming more popular because it is leaner
– Not as juicy or flavorful
– Often marinated before cooking
– More often cooked by moist heat methods

Forequarter = 4 primal cuts

• Chuck(shoulder)

– Use moist heat or combination cooking
– Includes roasts, steaks, stew meat, ground

– Roast, grill, broil, saute
– Sold whole, in small roasts, rib eye steaks

• Brisket and Foreshank

– Brisket is braised or made into corned beef
– When cured and smoked it is used for pastrami
– Typically braised or used in stews

– Includes short ribs and skirt steak
– Ribs are often braised
– Skirt steak is cooked by dry heat

Hindquarter = 4 primal cuts

– Includes roast and steaks

• T-bone, strip, filet mignon, tournedos, & tenderloin tips

Contains portion of the tenderloin
Less tender than loin
Sirloin butt is moderately tough
Roasting, grilling, broiling, sauteing common
cooking methods

– Flank steak us usually sold whole
– Can be grilled, but often braised and can be

– Includes the knuckle and the eye of the round
that can be roasted
– Most commonly cooked by braising or stewing
– Often cubed for stew meat or kebabs
– Meat from the bootom round is often ground

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