HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC A SEMINAR REPORT
#1

HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC
A SEMINAR REPORT
Submitted by
NIKESH BHARTI
impartial fulfillment of requirement of the Degree
of
Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech)
IN
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
KOCHI- 682022
AUGUST 2008Page 2

Certificate
DIVISION OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
KOCHI-682022
Certificate
Certified that this is a bonafide record of the seminar entitled
" HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC "
presented by the following student
Nikesh Bharti
of the VII semester, Computer Science and Engineering in the year 2008 in partial
fulfillment of the requirements in the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in
Computer Science and Engineering of Cochin University of Science and Technology.
Ms. Remyamol K M Dr. David Peter S.
Seminar Guide Head of Division
DatePage 3

Acknowledgement
Many people have contributed to the success of this. Although a single sentence hardly
suffices, I would like to thank Almighty God for blessing us with His grace. I extend my
sincere and heart felt thanks to Dr. David Peter, Head of Department, Computer
Science and Engineering, for providing us the right ambience for carrying out this work. I
am profoundly indebted to my seminar guide, Ms. Remyamol K M for innumerable acts
of timely advice, encouragement and I sincerely express my gratitude to her.
I express my immense pleasure and thankfulness to all the teachers and staff of the
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, CUSAT for their cooperation and
support.
Last but not the least, I thank all others, and especially my classmates who in one way or
another helped me in the successful completion of this work.
NIKESH BHARTIPage 4

ABSTRACT
The Information Age has led to an explosion of information available to
users.While current storage needs are being met, storage technologies must
continue to improve in order to keep pace with the rapidly increasing
demand. However, conventional data storage technologies ,where
individual bits are stored as distinct magnetic or optical changes on the
surface of a recording medium, are approaching physical limits. Storing
information throughout the volume of a medium ” not just on its surface
”offers an intriguing high-capacity alternative. Holographic data storage
is a volumetric approach which , although conceived decades ago, has
made recent progress toward practicality with the appearance of lower-
cost enabling technologies , significant results from longstanding
research efforts, and progress in holographic recording materials.
Holographic versatile disc (HVD) is a holographic storage format capable of
storing far more data than DVD. Prototype HVD devices have been created
with a capacity of 3.9 terabytes (TB) and a transfer rate of 1 gigabit per
second (1 Gbps). At that capacity, an HVD could store as much
information as 830 DVDs or 160 Blu-ray discs.
This paper presents an introduction to holographic versatile disc, its
challenges , and opportunities.Page 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter No. Title Page
LIST OF TABLES iii
LIST OF FIGURES iii
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Breif history 2
1.2 Longevity 3
1.3 Features 3
2 UNDERLYING TECHNOLOGY 4
2.1 Holography 4
2.2 Collinear Holography 6
3 STRUCTURE 7
3.1 HVD Structure 7
3.2 HVD Reader Prototype 8
4 DATA STORAGE 9
4.1 Recording Data 9
4.2 Reading Data 11
5 HARDWARE 13
5.1 Spatial Light Modulator 13Page 6

6 TYPES 15
6.1 Read Only 15
6.2 Read-Write 15
7 MORE ONHVD 17
7.1 Competing Technologies 17
7.2 HVD Adoption 17
7.3 HSD Forum 17
7.4 Standards 18
7.5 Storage Capacity 18
7.6 HVD at a Glance 19
8 COMPARISON 20
9 DEVELOPMENT ISSUES 21
10 CONCLUSION 22
11 REFERENCES 23Page 7

LIST OF TABLES
NO:
NAME
PAGE
Features Comparison
LIST OF FIGURES
NO:
NAME
PAGE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Interference
Holography
Collinear Holography
Fringes Pattern
Disc Structure
HVD Reader Prototype
Recording Data
Reading Data
SLM
Data Storage
Electron cloud
HVD
4
5
6
6
7
8
10
12
13
14
16
19
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1. INTRODUCTION
An HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc), a holographic storage media, is an advanced
optical disk that's presently in the development stage. Polaroid scientist J. van Heerden
was the first to come up with the idea for holographic three-dimensional storage in
1960. An HVD would be a successor to today's Blu-ray and HD-DVD technologies. It
can transfer data at the rate of 1 Gigabit per second. The technology permits over 10
kilobits of data tobe written and read in parallel with a single flash. The disk will store
upto 3.9 terabyte (TB) of data on a single optical disk.
Holographic data storage, a potential next generation storage technology, offers both high
storage density and fast readout rate. In this article, I discuss the physical origin of these
attractive technology features, and the components and engineering required to realize
them. The strengths and weaknesses of available write-once and read-writeable storage
media are discussed, including the development issues of achieving non-volatile readout
from read-write media. Systems issues such as the major noise sources and avenues for
defeating or finessing them are detailed, including the potentials and pitfalls of phase-
conjugate readout and holographic storage on spinning media. I conclude by describing
the current state of holographic storage research and development efforts in the context of
ongoing improvements to established storage technologies.
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l.lBRIEF HISTORY
Although holography was conceived in the late 1940s, it was not considered a potential
storage technology until the development of the laser in the 1960s. The resulting rapid
development of holography for displaying 3-D images led researchers to realize that
holograms could also store data at a volumetric density of as much as 1/ A3 where A, is the
wave-length of the light beam used.
Since each data page is retrieved by an array of photo detectors in parallel, rather than
bit-by-bit, the holographic scheme promises fast readout rates as well as high density.
If a thousand holograms, each containing a million pixels, could be retrieved every
second, for instance, then the output data rate would reach 1 Gigabit per second.
Despite this attractive potential and fairly impressive early progress research into
holographic data storage died out in the mid-1970s because suitable devices for the input
and output of large pixelated 2-D data pages were just not available.
In the early 1990s, interest in volume-holographic data storage was rekindled by the
availability of devices that could display and detect 2-D pages, including charge coupled
devices (CCD), complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector chips and
small liquid-crystal panels. The wide availability of these devices was made possible by
the commercial success of hand-held camcorders, digital cameras, and video projectors.
With these components in hand, holographic-storage researchers have begun to
demonstrate the potential of their technology in the laboratory. By using the volume of
the media, researchers have experimentally demonstrated that data can be stored at
equivalent areal densities of nearly 400 bits/sq. micron. (For comparison, a single-layer
of a DVD disk stores data at ~ 4:7 bits/sq. micron ) A readout rate of 10 Gigabit per
second has also been achieved in the laboratory.
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1.2 LONGEVITY
Holographic data storage can provide companies a method to preserve and archive
information. The write-once, read many (WORM) approach to data storage would ensure
content security, preventing the information from being overwritten or modified.
Manufacturers believe this technology can provide safe storage for content without
degradation for more than 50 years, far exceeding current data storage options.
Counterpoints to this claim point out the evolution of data reader technology changes
every ten years; therefore, being able to store data for 50-100 years would not matter if
you could not read or access it.
1.3 FEATURES
Data transfer rate : lgbps.
The technology permits over 10 kilobits of data to be written and read in
parallel with a single flash.
Most optical storage devices, such as a standard CD saves one bit per pulse.
HVDs manage to store 60,000 bits per pulse in the same place.
1 HVD = 5800 CDs = 830 DVD =160 BLU-RAY Discs.
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2. UNDERLYING TECHNOLOGY
2.1 HOLOGRAPHY
Holographic data storage refers specifically to the use of holography to store and retrieve
digital data. To do this, digital data must be imposed onto an optical wavefront, stored
holographically with high volumetric density, and then extracted from the retrieved
optical wavefront with excellent data fidelity.
A hologram preserves both the phase and amplitude of an optical wavefront of interest -
called the object beam - by recording the optical interference pattern between it and a
second coherent optical beam - the reference beam. Figure 2.1 shows this process .
Interference
lightwaves
barrier
interference
pattern
Fig 2.1
The reference beam is designed to be simple to reproduce at a later stage. (A common
reference beam is a plane wave: a light beam that propagates without converging or
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diverging.) These interference fringes are recorded if the two beams have been
overlapped within a suitable photosensitive media, such as a photopolymer or inorganic
crystal or photographic film. The bright and dark variations of the interference pattern
create chemical and/or physical changes in the media, preserving a replica of the
interference pattern as a change in absorption, refractive index or thickness.
From Computer Desktop Bicyclopedìa
S 20D6" Trie Computer L^nou^oe Co. Ino.
WRITE
HOLOGRAM
Optic ii I
fvloTei i-il
[K-iT*-i Benin
llllllllllllllllllllllllilllllllllllllll
Â¥% of o re n >c e O o o m
The
i nter-F erer-ioe
pattern,
WTli oh i ^
th"i^ holograi
^ mi 11 i on
II
READ
HOLOGRAM
lllllllllllllllllllllllll
[Kit.! Beïim
Reference Berlin
Fig 2.2
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When the recording is illuminated by a readout beam similar to the original reference
beam, some of the light is diffracted to "reconstruct" a copy of the object beam as shown
in Figure 2.2 . If the object beam originally came from a 3-D object, then the
reconstructed hologram makes the 3-D object reappear.
2.2 COLLINEAR HOLOGRAPHY
HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography,' in which two laser rays, one blue-
green and one red, are collimated into a single beam. The role of the blue-green laser is to
read the data encoded in the form of laser interference fringes from the holographic layer
on the top, while the red laser serves the purpose of a reference beam and also to read the
servo info from the aluminum layer - like in normal CDs - near the bottom of the disk.
The servo info is meant to monitor the coordinates of the read head above the disk (this is
similar to the track, head and sector information on a normal hard disk drive).
Fig 2.3 shows the two laser collinear holography technique and fig 2.4 shows the
interference fringes pattern stored on the disc.
Fig 2.3
Fig 2.4
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3. STRUCTURE
3.1 HVD STRUCTURE
HVD structure is shown in fig 3.1. The following components are used in HVD.
1.Green writing/reading laser (532 nm)
2. Red positioning/addressing laser (650 nm)
3. Hologram (data)
4. Polycarbon layer
5. Photopolymeric layer (data-containing layer)
6. Distance layers
7. Dichroic layer (reflecting green light)
8. Aluminium reflective layer (reflecting red light)
9. Transparent base
P. PIT
á
Fig 3.1
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3.2 HVD READER PROTOTYPE
To read data from an HVD we need an HVD reader. The following components are used
to make a raeder.
A blue-green argon laser, beam splitters to spilt the laser beams, mirrors to direct the
laser beams, LCD panels (spatial light modulator), lenses to focus the laser beams,
lithium-niobate crystals or photopolymers, and charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras.
Fig 3.2 shows the prototype of a reader.
From Computer Desktop &cyclopedia
Reproduced uurth permission.
S 1996 IBM^maden Research Center
Fig 3.2
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4. DATA STORAGE
4.1 RECORDING DATA
Holographic data storage works on the principle of holography. In holographic data
storage an entire page of information is stored at once as an optical interference pattern
within a thick, photosensitive optical material (Fig 4.1). This is done by intersecting two
coherent laser beams within the storage material. The first, called the object beam,
contains the information to be stored; the second, called the reference beam, is designed
to be simple to reproduce. The resulting optical interference pattern causes chemical
and/or physical changes in the photosensitive medium. A replica of the interference
pattern is stored as a change in the absorption, refractive index, or thickness of the
photosensitive medium. Illuminating the stored grating with the reference wave
reconstructs the object wave.
Light from a single laser beam is divided into two separate beams, a reference beam and
an object or signal beam; a spatial light modulator is used to encode the object beam with
the data for storage. An optical inference pattern results from the crossing of the beams'
paths, creating a chemical and/or physical change in the photosensitive medium; the
resulting data is represented in an optical pattern of dark and light pixels. By adjusting the
reference beam angle, wavelength, or media position, a multitude of holograms
(theoretically, several thousand) can be stored on a single volume. The theoretical limits
for the storage density of this technique are approximately tens of terabits (1 terabyte =
1,000 gigabytes) per cubic centimeter.
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Recording Data m®^
Referente
Beim
Mi] i
. ^ 011101010101001010.
aim light j
Mfliuhtor _^ ¦
\ """"" Data rages
Laser
Fig 4.1
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4.2 READING DATA
A backward-propagating reference wave, illuminating the stored grating from the
"back" side, reconstructs an object wave that also propagates backward toward its
original source where the bit value can be read.
A large number of these interference gratings or patterns can be superimposed in the
same thick piece of media and can be accessed independently, as long as they are
distinguishable by the direction or the spacing of the gratings. Such separation can be
accomplished by changing the angle between the object and reference wave or by
changing the laser wavelength. Any particular data page can then be read out
independently by illuminating the stored gratings with the reference wave that was used
to store that page. Because of the thickness of the hologram, this reference wave is
diffracted by the interference patterns in such a fashion that only the desired object beam
is significantly reconstructed and imaged on an electronic camera.
Another way to retrieve data involves illuminating it with a diverging object beam, which
reconstructs the original plane wave reference beam. This beam can be focused onto a
detector and provides an optical measurement of the correlation between the stored data
and the illuminating object beam. This technique can allow one to search the stored data
according to its content, rather than according to its address (Fig 4.2).
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Reading Data
Recording
Meium\
Reference
Beam
Detector
Optics
DahFagps
011101010101001010.
RmìiiThIhiI
Ml
Fig 4.2
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5. HARDWARE
5.1 SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR
To use volume holography as a storage technology, digital data must be imprinted onto
the object beam for recording and then retrieved from the reconstructed object beam
during readout. The device for putting data into the system is called a spatial light
modulator (SLM) - a planar array consisting of thousands of pixels. Each pixel is an
independent microscopic shutter that can either block or pass light using liquid-crystal or
micro-mirror technology. Liquid crystal panels and micro-mirror arrays with 1280 X
1024 pixels are commercially available due to the success of computer-driven projection
displays. The pixels in both types of devices can be refreshed over 1000 times per
second, allowing the holographic storage system to reach an input data rate of 1 Gbit per
second - assuming that laser power and material sensitivities would permit. The data are
read using an array of detector pixels, such as a CCD camera or CMOS sensor array.
optical cylinders
(1mm x 1cm}
From Computer Desktop BicycHopedia
d> 1998 The Computer Language Co. Inc.
spatial light
modulator
Fig 5.1
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To access holographically-stored data, the correct reference beam must first be directed
to the appropriate spot within the storage media. With mechanical access (i.e., a spinning
disk), getting to the right spot is slow (long latency), but reading data out can be quick.
Non - mechanical access leads to possibility for lower latency. A frequently mentioned
goal is an integration time of about 1 millisecond, which implies that 1000 pages of data
can be retrieved per second. If there are 1 million pixels per data page and each pixel
stores one bit then the readout rate is 1 Gigabit per second. This goal requires high laser
power (at least 1 W), a storage material capable of high diffraction efficiencies, and a
detector with a million pixels that can be read out at high frame rates. Frame rates of 1
kHz have been demonstrated in such "megapixel" CCDs , but these are not yet
commercially available. Low-noise megapixel CMOS detector arrays that can support
500 frames per second have also been demonstrated. Even with these requirements, faster
readout and lower latency could be reached by steering the reference beam angle non-
mechanically, by using a pulsed laser, and by electronically reading only the desired
portion of the detector array. Both the capacity and the readout rate are maximized when
each detector pixel is matched to a single pixel on the SLM, but for large pixel arrays this
requires careful optical design and alignment.
Detector
..._ Array
Spatial
Light
Modulator
Fig 5.2
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6. TYPES
6.1 READ ONLY
A material that permanently stores volume holograms must generally support some
irreversible photochemical reaction, triggered by the bright regions of the optical
interference pattern, that can lead to changes in index of refraction or absorption. For
example, a photopolymer material polymerizes in response to optical illumination:
material diffuses from darker to brighter regions so that short monomer chains can bind
together to form long molecular chains. Because this diffusion process can be
phototriggered, sensitivities can be made high enough to support holographic recording
with single short pulses. However, the high sensitivity means that some of the media
volume may be inadvertently affected by partial exposure as nearby spots are recorded. In
contrast to photopolymers, the illuminated molecules in a so-called direct-write or
photochromatic material undergo a local change in their absorption or index of refraction,
driven by photochemistry or photo-induced molecular reconfiguration. Examples include
photoaddressable polymers, and binding of absorbers to polymer hosts. Both types of
materials are inexpensive to make in bulk, but both can have problems reproducing the
object beam faithfully.
6.2 READ-WRITE
In contrast to the organic WORM media, most erasable holographic materials tend to be
inorganic photorefractive crystals doped with transition metals or rare-earth ions. These
materials react to an optical interference pattern by transporting and trapping electrons. In
an ensemble sense, electrons photoexcited at the bright fringes diffuse or drift (are pushed
by an electric field) and are retrapped at a dark fringe. By using noncentro symmetric
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crystals exhibiting a linear electro-optic effect, the resulting spatial modulation of electric
field leads to a corresponding local change in index of refraction. The trapped charge can
be rearranged by later illumination, so it is possible to erase recorded holograms and
replace them with new ones. This would seem to enable a read-write storage device,
where small blocks of data are written, read, and erased with equal facility. However, the
recording rates of photorefractive materials are typically 5-50 times slower than the
achievable readout rate at any given laser power. In addition, erasing individual
holograms from a small storage volume without affecting the other superimposed
holograms is quite complicated.
Fig 6.1 shows spatial re-configuration of elotronic cloud ,thus producing modulation in
electric fields.
Fig 6.1
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7. MORE ON HVD
7.1 COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES
HVD is not the only technology in high-capacity, optical storage media. InPhase
Technologies is developing a rival holographic format called Tapestry Media, which they
claim will eventually store 1.6 TB with a data transfer rate of 120 MB/s, and several
companies are developing TB-level discs based on 3D optical data storage technology.
Such large optical storage capacities compete favorably with the Blu-ray Disc format.
However, holographic drives are projected to initially cost around US$15,000, and a
single disc around US$120-180, although prices are expected to fall steadily. The market
for this format is not initially the common consumer, but enterprises with very large
storage needs.
7.2 HVD ADOPTION
The biggest challenge for HVD will be in establishing itself in the commercial market,
which as of now seems to be a distant dream, given its higher cost margins. It is
anticipated that a single HVD, when commercially available, may cost anywhere between
$100-120 , and the reader will be priced anywhere in the range of $10,000 to $15,000.
However, like anything else associated with technology, the price will soon fall as
R&DD costs are recouped and competitions lowers profit margins.
7.3 THE HSD FORUM
The HSD Forum (formerly the HVD Alliance, & HVD FORUM) is a coalition of
corporations purposed to provide an industry forum for testing and technical discussion
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of all aspects of HVD design and manufacturing. By cooperating, members of the Forum
hope to expedite development and engender a market receptive to HVD technology.
7.4 STANDARDS
On December 9, 2004 at its 88th General Assembly the standards body Ecma
International created Technical Committee 44, dedicated to standardizing HVD formats
based on Optware's technology. On June 11, 2007, TC44 published the first two HVD
standards: ECMA-377, defining a 200 GB HVD "recordable cartridge" and ECMA-378,
defining a 100 GB HVD-ROM disc. Its next stated goals are 30 GB HVD cards and
submission of these standards to the International Organization for Standardization for
ISO approval.
7.5 STORAGE CAPACITY IN CONTEXT
The entire US Library of Congress can be stored on six HVDs, assuming that
every book has been scanned in the text format. The Library of Congress is the
largest in the world and contains over 130 million items.
The pictures of every landmass on Earth - like the ones shown in Google Earth -
can be stored on two HVDs.
With MPEG4 ASP encoding, a 3.9 TB HVD can hold anywhere between 4,600-
11,900 hours of video, which is enough for non-stop playing for a year.
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7.6 HVDAT A GLANCE
Fig 7.1
Media type: Ultra-high density optical disc
Encoding : MPEG-2, MPEG-4 AVC (H.264), and VC-1
Capacity : Theoretically up to 3.9 TB
Developed : By HSD Forum
Usage : Data storage, High-definition video, & the possibility of ultra high
definition video.
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8. COMPARISON
Parameters
DVD
BLU-MAY
HVD
capacity
4.7 GB
25 GB
3.9 TB
Laser wave length
650 nm
(red)
405 nm
(blue)
532 nm (green)
Disc diameter
120 mm
120 mm
120 mm
Hard coating
no
yes
yes
Data transfer rate (raw
data)
11.08 mbps
36 mbps
1 gbps
Data transfer rate
(audio/video)
10.08 mbps
54 mbps
1 gbps
Table 8.1
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9. MORE DEVELOPMENT ISSUES
Despite the highly attractive nature of 3D optical data storage, the development of
commercial products has taken a significant length of time. This is the result of the
limited financial backing that 3D optical storage ventures have received, as well as
technical issues including:
¢ Destructive reading. Since both the reading and the writing of data are
carried out with laser beams, there is a potential for the reading process to cause a
small amount of writing. In this case, the repeated reading of data may eventually
serve to erase it (this also happens in phase change materials used in some DVDs).
This issue has been addressed by many approaches, such as the use of different
absorption bands for each process (reading and writing), or the use of a reading
method that does not involve the absorption of energy.
¢ Thermodynamic stability. Many chemical reactions that appear not to take
place in fact happen very slowly. In addition, many reactions that appear to have
happened can slowly reverse themselves. Since most 3D media are based on
chemical reactions, there is therefore a risk that either the unwritten points will
slowly become written or that the written points will slowly revert to being
unwritten. This issue is particularly serious for the spiropyrans, but extensive
research was conducted to find more stable chromophores for 3D memories.
¢ Media sensitivity. As we have noted, 2-photon absorption is a weak
phenomenon, and therefore high power lasers are usually required to produce it.
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10. CONCLUSION
The Information Age has led to an explosion of information available to users. While
current storage needs are being met, storage technologies must continue to improve in
order to keep pace with the rapidly increasing demand. However, conventional data
storage technologies, where individual bits are stored as distinct magnetic or optical
changes on the surface of a recording medium, are approaching physical limits. Storing
information throughout the volume of a medium”not just on its surface”offers an
intriguing high-capacity alternative. Holographic data storage is a volumetric approach
which, although conceived decades ago, has made recent progress toward practicality
with the appearance of lower-cost enabling technologies, significant results from
longstanding research efforts, and progress in holographic recording materials.
HVD gives a practical way to exploit the holography technologies to store data upto 3.9
terabytes on a single disc. It can transfer data at the rate of 1 Gigabit per second. The
technology permits over 10 kilobits of data tobe written and read in parallel with a
single flash. So an HVD would be a successor to today's Blu-ray and HD-DVD
technologies.
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REFERENCES
http:// ibm.com - IBM Research Press Resources Holographic Storage
http:// howstuffworks.com
http:// hvd-forum.org
http:// optware.co.jp/english/what_040823 .htm
http://newsgroups.derkeilerpdf/Archive/A...o.dvd/2005-
09Ansg00487.pdf
http://pdf-search-enginecollinear-holography-pdf.html
Reply
#2
and more links http://en.wikipediawiki/Holographic_Versatile_Disc
http://media-techfileadmin/templates/resources/sc06/mtc06_keynote_day2_kaneko.pdf
http://electronics.howstuffworkshvd.htm
Reply
#3
plz........can u send me hvd seminar report along with pictures to my mail....

my email id is nagarani30[at]gmail.com

hope ill receive dis seminar report by tomorow becoz ihave to submit it by tuesday..............
Reply
#4
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enjoy this full seminar reports of HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC
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#5
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ABSTRACT
Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology still in the research stage which would greatly increase storage over Blue-ray Disc and HP DVD optical disc systems. It employs a technique known as collinear holography, whereby two lasers, one red and one blue-green, are collimated in a single beam. The blue-green laser reads data encoded as laser interference fringes from a holographic layer near the top of the disc while the red laser is used as the reference beam and to read servo information from a regular CD-style aluminium layer near the bottom. Servo information is used to monitor the position of the read head over the disc, similar to the head, track, and sector information on a conventional hard disk drive. On a CD or DVD this servo information is interspersed amongst the data.
A dichroic mirror layer between the holographic data and the servo data reflects the blue-green laser while letting the red laser pass through. This prevents interference from refraction of the blue-green laser off the servo data pits and is an advance over past holographic storage media, which either experienced too much interference, or lacked the servo data entirely, making them incompatible with current CD and DVD drive technology.These discs have the capacity to hold up to 3.9 terabyte(TB) of information, which is approximately 6,000 times the capacity of a CD-ROM, 830 times the capacity of a DVD, 160 times the capacity of single-layer Blu-ray Discs, and about 8 times the capacity of standard computer hard drives as of 2006. The HVD also has a transfer rate of 1 gigabit/s. Optware is expected to release a 200 GB disc in early June 2006, and Maxell in September 2006 with a capacity of 300 GB and transfer rate of 20 MB/s.
1. INTRODUCTION
Requirements for removable media storage devices (RMSDs) used with personal computers have changed significantly since the introduction of the floppy disk in 1971. At one time, desktop computers depended on floppy disks for all of their storage requirements. Even with the advent of multi Gigabyte hard drives and fast Internet connections, floppy disks and other RMSDs are still an integral part of most computer systems, providing:
t* Transport between computers for data files and software
Backup to preserve data from the hard disks.
A way to load the operating system software in the event of a hard-drive failure.
Some RMSD options available today are approaching the performance, capacity, and cost of hard-disk drives. Considerations for selecting an RMSD include capacity, speed, convenience, durability, data availability, and backward compatibility. Technology options used to read and write data include:
Magnetic formats that use magnetic particles and magnetic fields. > Optical formats that use laser light and optical sensors.
Magneto-optical and magneto-optical hybrids that use a combination of magnetic and optical properties to increase storage capacity.
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2. REMOVABLE MEDIA STORAGE DEVICES (RMSDs)
Let us have a glance on the different RMSDs.
2.1 Floppy Disk
Floppy disk drives provide faster data access because they access data randomly. Floppy drives provide an average data access speed of less than 100 milliseconds (ms).
The 1.44-MB, 3.5-inch floppy is useful for storing and backing up small data files, can be used to boot computer systems, and has been the standard for data interchange between PCs. However it provides only a fraction of the storage capacity required for many files and most software programs in use today. Storing data on floppy drives also is slow. Data transfer rates average around 0.06 MB/sec.
2.2 Optical Formats
Optical RMSD formats use a laser light source to read and/or write digital data to disc. CD and DVD are two major optical formats. CDs and DVDs have similar compositions consisting of a label, a protective layer, a reflective layer (aluminum, silver, or gold), a digital-data layer molded in polycarbonate, and a thick polycarbonate bottom layer
Label layer
Reflective layer
Digital-data layer
Bottom Of disc Polycarbonate
layer
Optical Disk Composition
CD formats include:
¦ Compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM)
¦ Compact disc-recordable (CD-R)
¦ Compact disc-rewritable (CD-RW)
DVD formats include:
¦ Digital versatile disc-read only memory (DVD-ROM)
¦ Digital versatile disc-recordable (DVD-R) DVD-RAM (rewritable)
¦ Digital versatile disc-rewritable (DVD-RW)
¦ +RW (rewritable)
2.3 CD-ROM
CD-ROM Standard was established in 1984.They quickly evolved into a low cost digital storage option because of CD-audio industry
Data bits are permanently stored on a CD as a spiral track of physically molded pits in the surface of a plastic data layer that is coated with reflective aluminum. Smooth areas surrounding pits are called lands. CDs are extremely durable because the optical pickup (laser light source, lenses and optical elements, photoelectric sensors, and amplifiers) never touches the disc. Because data is read through the thick bottom layer, most scratches and dust on the disc surface are out of focus, so they do not interfere with the reading process.
One CD-ROM (650-700 MB) storage capacity can store data from more than 450 floppy disks. Data access rate ranges from 80 to 120 ms. Data transfer rates are approximately 6 MB/sec.
2.4 DVD-ROM
The DVD-ROM standard, introduced in 1995 came over as a result of a DVD consortium. Like CD drives, DVD drives read data through the disc substrate reducing interferences from surface dust and scratches. However DVD-ROM technology provides seven times the storage capacity of CDs and accomplishes most of this increase by advancing the technology used for CD systems. The distance between recording tracks is les than half that is used for CDs. The pit size also is less than half
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that of CDs, which requires a reduced laser wavelength read the smaller sized pits. These features alone give DVD-ROM discs 4.5 times the storage capacity of CDs.
DVD drives can also store on both sides of the disc; manufacturers deliver the two-sided structure by bonding two thinner substrates together, providing the potential to double a DVD's storage capacity. Single sided DVD discs have the two fused substrates, but only one side contains data.
In a DVD, storage of data in the data layers can be:
Single-sided, single layer (4.7 GB)
Double-sided, single layer (9.4 GB)
Single-sided, double layer (8.5 GB)
Double-sided, double layer (17 GB)
Single-sided, single layer (4.7GB) Single-sided, double layer (8.5 GB)
0.6mm
0.6mm
Double-sided. Single layer (9.4 GB)
Double.-sided, double layer (1" GB)
0.6inm
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Figure: DVD Data Storage Versions
2.5 DVD-R
DVD-R drives were introduced in 1997 to provide write-once capability on DVD-R discs used for producing disc masters in software development and for multimedia post-production. This technology sometimes referred to as DVD-R for authoring, is limited to niche applications because drives and media are expensive.
DVD-R discs employ a photosensitive dye technology similar to CD-R media. At 3.95 GB per side, the first DVD-R discs provided a little less storage capacity than DVD-ROM discs. That capacity has now been extended to the 4.7-GB capacity of DVD-ROM discs. The IX DVD-R data transfer rate is 1.3 MB/sec. Most DVD-ROM drives and DVD video players read DVD-R discs. Slightly modified DVD-R drives and discs have recently become available for general use.
2.6 DVD-RAM
DVD-RAM (rewritable) drives were introduced in 1998. DVD-RAM devices use a phase change technology combined with some embossed land/pit features. Employing a format termed "land groove", data is recorded in the grooves formed on the disc and on the land between the grooves. The initial disc capacity was
2.6 GB per side, but a 4.7 GB- per-side version is now available.
The 4.7-GB DVD-RAM discs come in cartridges that protect the medium from handling damage, such as fingerprints and scratches. A single-sided disc is expected to be removable from the cartridge so it can also be played in DVD-ROM drives that support DVD-RAM. The double-sided disc, providing 4.7GB of storage capacity per side, is not removable from the cartridge.
Each DVD-RAM disc is reported to handle more than 100,000 rewrites. DVD-RAM is specifically designed for PC data storage; DVD-RAM discs use a storage structure based in sectors, instead of the spiral groove structure used for CD data storage. This sector storage is similar to the storage structure used by hard drives. Sector storage results in faster random data access speed.
Because of their high cost relative to CD-RW technology, current consumer-oriented DVD-RAM drives and media are not a popular choice for PC applications. Slow adoption of DVD-RAM reading capability in DVD-ROM drives has also limited DVD-RAM market acceptance.
2.7 DVD-RW
The DVD-RW drive format is similar to the DVD-R format, but offers rewritability using a phase-change recording layer that is comparable to the phase-change layer used for CD-RW. DVD-RW is intended for consumer video (non -PC) use, but PC applications are also expected for this technology. The first DVD-RW drives based on this format, which also recorded DVD-R discs, were introduced in early 2001.
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2.8 +RW
Sony and Philips were founding members of the DVD consortium, but broke away to introduce the DVD+RW (now called +RW) phase change, rewritable technology in 1997. Discs can be written approximately 1000 times, which makes them a good option for video recording, but not optimal for data storage. +RW technology's strongest feature is its backward compatibility with DVD-ROM drives and DVD video players.
2.9 Magneto-Optical Formats
Magneto-optical (MO) technology combines he strengths of magnetic and optical technologies by using a laser to read data and the combination of a laser and magnetic field to write data. The top (label side) of the disk is exposed to a magnetic field to write data, and a laser light source targets the data layer through the bottom substrate to read data.
There are 3.5- and 5.5-inch disk formats that contain a magnetic alloy layer. Magnetic particles in the alloy are very stable and resist changing polarity at room temperature. Data bits re recorded on this magnetic layer by heating it with a focused laser beam in the presence of magnetic field. Changes in the magnetic orientation of the data bits along a track represents 0s and 1 s much like on hard disks and other magnetic media. The magnetic layer also changes the rotation or polarization of reflected laser light depending on the 0 or 1 polarity of the magnetic bits. This property called the "Kerr Effect" and is used to read the data. MO systems also increase the data bits vertically rather than horizontally.
The 3.5-inch disks are available in 128-, 230-, and 640-MB storage capacities. The 5.25-inch disks come in 650-MB and 1.3-, 2.6-, and 5.2-GB sizes. A 9.1 -GB size is expected soon. At less than 25ms, data access times faster than the average 100ms of phase change CD and DVD technologies. MO drives are widely used in Japan for general-purpose storage, similar to the way Zip drives are used in the U.S. Outside of Japan; applications for MO drives typically have been in niche markets for Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), document imaging, and high-capacity archives.
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Holographic Versatile Disc 3. HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC
3.1How Holographic Versatile Discs Work
Holographic memory systems have been around for decades. They offer tar more storage capacity than CDs and DVDs ” even "next-generation" DVDs like Blu-ray ” and their transfer rates leave conventional discs in the dust. So why haven't we all been using holographic memory for years now
There are several hurdles that have been holding Holographic versatile disc holographic storage back from the realm of mass
consumption, including price and complexity. Until now, the systems have required a cost-prohibitive level of precision in manufacturing. But recent changes have made the holographic versatile disc (HVD) developed by Optware a viable option for consumers.
In this article, we'll find out how the HVD works, how it has improved upon previous methods of holographic storage and how it stacks up to Blu-ray and HD-DVD
3.2Basics of Holographic Memory
The first step in understanding holographic memory is to understand what "holographic" means. Holography is a method of recording patterns of light to produce a three-dimensional object. The recorded patterns of light are called a hologram.
The process of creating a hologram begins with a focused beam of light ~ a laser beam. This laser beam is split into two separate beams: a reference beam, which remains unchanged throughout much of the process, and an information beam, which passes 3-D image of the Death Star through an image. When light encounters an image, its created by holography composition changes (see How Light Works to learn
about this process). In a sense, once the information beam encounters an image, it carries that image in its waveforms. When these two beams intersect, it creates a pattern of light interference. If you record this pattern of light interference ” for example, in a photosensitive polymer layer of a disc - you are essentially recording the light pattern of the image.
To retrieve the information stored in a hologram, you shine the reference beam directly onto the hologram. When it reflects off the hologram, it holds the light pattern of the image stored there. You then send this reconstruction beam to a CMOS sensor to recreate the original image.
Most of us think of holograms as storing the image of an object, like the Death Star pictured above. The holographic memory systems we're discussing here use holograms to store digital instead of analog information, but it's the same concept. Instead of the information beam encountering a pattern of light that represents the
Death Star, it encounters a pattern of light and dark areas that represent ones and zeroes.
Encoded page data
HVD offers several advantages over traditional storage technology. HVDs can ultimately store more than 1 terabyte (TB) of information ” that's 200 times more than a single-sided DVD and 20 times more than a current double-sided Blu-ray. This is partly due to HVDs storing holograms in overlapping patterns, while a DVD basically stores bits of information side-by-side. HVDs also use a thicker recording layer than DVDs ” an HVD stores information in almost the entire volume of the disc, instead of just a single, thin layer.
The other major boost over conventional memory systems is HVD's transfer rate of up to 1 gigabyte (GB) per second - that's 40 times faster than DVD. An HVD stores and retrieves an entire page of data, approximately 60,000 bits of information, in one pulse of light, while a DVD stores and retrieves one bit of data in one pulse of light.
Now that we know the premise at work in HVD technology, let's take a look at the structure of the Optware disc.
3.3The Holographic Data storage Basics
Prototypes developed by Lucent and IBM differ slightly, but most holographic data storage systems (HDSS) are based on the same concept. Here are the basic components that are needed to construct an HDSS:
« Blue-green argon laser
¢ Beam splitters to spilt the laser beam
¢ Mirrors to direct the laser beams
¢ LCD panel (spatial light modulator)
¢ Lenses to focus the laser beams
¢ Lithium-niobate crystal or photopolymer
¢ Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera
When the blue-green argon laser is fired, a beam splitter creates two beams. One beam, called the object or signal beam, will go straight, bounce off one mirror and travel through a spatial-light modulator (SLM). An SLM is a liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows pages of raw binary data as clear and dark boxes. The information from the page of binary code is carried by the signal beam around to the light-sensitive lithium-niobate crystal. Some systems use a photopolymer in place of the crystal. A second beam, called the reference beam, shoots out the side of the beam splitter and takes a separate path to the crystal. When the two beams meet, the interference pattern that is created stores the data carried by the signal beam in a specific area in the crystal ” the data is stored as a hologram.
An advantage of a holographic memory system is that an entire page of data can be retrieved quickly and at one time. In order to retrieve and reconstruct the holographic page of data stored in the crystal, the reference beam is shined into the crystal at exactly the same angle at which it entered to store that page of data. Each page of data is stored in a different area of the crystal, based on the angle at which the reference beam strikes it. During reconstruction, the beam will be diffracted by the crystal to allow the recreation of the original page that was stored. This reconstructed page is then projected onto the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, which interprets and forwards the digital information to a computer.
The key component of any holographic data storage system is the angle at which the second reference beam is fired at the crystal to retrieve a page of data. It must match the original reference beam angle exactly. A difference of just a thousandth of a millimeter will result in failure to retrieve that page of data.
3.4The Holographic Versatile Disc
Holographic memory has been around for more than 40 years, but several characteristics made it difficult to implement in a consumer market. First off, most of these systems send the reference beam and the information beam into the recording medium on different axes. This requires highly complex optical systems to line them up at the exact point at which they need to intersect. Another drawback has to do with incompatibility with current storage media: Traditionally, holographic storage systems contained no servo data, because the beam carrying it could interfere with the holography process. Also, previous holographic memory discs have been notably thicker than CDs and DVDs.
Optware has implemented some changes in its HVD that could make it a better fit for the consumer market. In the HVD system, the laser beams travel in the same axis and strike the recording medium at the same angle, which Optware calls the collinear method. According to Optware, this method requires a less complex system of optics, enabling a smaller optical pickup that is more suited to consumer use.
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HVD optical pickup
HVD also includes servo data. The servo beam in the HVD system is at a wavelength that does not photosensitize the polymer recording medium. In the HVD test system, the servo data is carried in a red (650-nm wavelength) laser. The size and thickness of an HVD is also compatible with CDs and DVDs.
The structure of the disc places a thick recording layer between two substrates and incorporates a dichroic mirror that reflects the blue-green light carrying the holography data but allows the red light to pass through in order to gather servo information.
4.STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT
4.1 Holographic Versatile Disc structure
Disc Structure
Green or
1. Green writing/reading laser (532nm)
2. Red positioning/addressing laser (650nm)
3. Hologram (data)
4. Polycarbon layer
5. Photopolymeric layer (data-containing layer)
6. Distance layers
7. Dichroic layer (reflecting green light)
8. Aluminium reflective layer (reflecting red light)
9. Transparent base
Diagonistic layer
A dichroic filter is a very-accurate color filter used to selectively pass light of a small range of colors while reflecting other colors. By comparison, Dichroic mirrors and dichroic reflectors tend to be characterized by the color(s) of light that they reflect rather than the color(s) they pass. (See dichroic for the etymology of the term.)
Used in front of a light source, a dichroic filter produces light that is perceived by humans to be highly saturated (intense) in color. Although costly, such filters are popular in architectural and theatrical applications.
Used behind a light source, dichroic reflectors commonly reflect visible light forward while allowing the invisible infrared light (radiated heat) to pass out of the rear of the fixture, resulting in a beam of light that is "cooler". Modern quartz halogen incandescent light bulbs frequently contain an integrated dichroic reflector (see picture).
A dichroic filter is a very-accurate color filter used to selectively pass light of a small range of colors while reflecting other colors. By comparison, Dichroic mirrors and dichroic reflectors tend to be characterized by the color(s) of light that they reflect rather than the color(s) they pass. (See dichroic for the etymology of the term.)
Used in front of a light source, a dichroic filter produces light that is perceived by humans to be highly saturated (intense) in color. Although costly, such filters are popular in architectural and theatrical applications.
Dichroic filters operate using the principle of interference. Alternating layers of an optical coating are built up upon a glass substrate, selectively reinforcing certain wavelengths of light and interfering with other wavelengths. The layers are usually deposited using a process carried out in a vacuum. By controlling the thickness and number of the layers, the frequency (wavelength) of the passband of the filter can be tuned and made as wide or narrow as desired. Because unwanted wavelengths are reflected rather than absorbed, dichroic filters don't absorb much energy during operation and so don't become nearly as hot as the equivalent conventional filter (which attempts to absorb all energy except for that in the passband).
Filter
An optical filter is a device which selectively transmits light having certain properties (often, a particular range of wavelengths, that is, range of colours of light, or polarizations), while blocking the remainder. They are commonly used in photography, in many optical instruments, and to colour stage lighting-Optical coating
An optical coating is a thin layer of material placed on an optical component such as a lens or mirror which alters the way in which the optic reflects and transmits light. One type of optical coating is an antireflection coating, which reduces unwanted reflections from surfaces, and is commonly used on spectacle and photographic lenses. Another type is the high-reflector coating which can be used to produce mirrors which reflect greater than 99% of the light which falls on them. More complex optical coatings exhibit high-reflection over some range of wavelengths, and anti-reflection over another range, allowing the production of dichroic thin-film optical filters.
Passband
In telecommunications, optics, and acoustics, passband is the portion of spectrum, between limiting frequencies that is transmitted with minimum relative loss or maximum relative gain by a filtering device.
Overview
Radio receivers generally include a tunable band-pass filter with a passband that is wide enough to accommodate the bandwidth of a single station.
4.2The HVD System: Writing Data
A simplified HVD system consists of the following main components:
¢ Blue or green laser (532-nm wavelength in the test system)
¢ Beam splitter/merger
¢ Mirrors
¢ Spatial light modulator (SLM)
¢ CMOS sensor
¢ Photopolymer recording medium
The process of writing information onto an HVD begins with encoding the information into binary data to be stored in the SLM. These data are turned into ones and zeroes represented as opaque or translucent areas on a "page" ” this page is the image that the information beam is going to pass through.
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Once the page of data is created, the next step is to fire a laser beam into a beam splitter to produce two identical beams. One of the beams is directed away from the SLM ” this beam becomes the reference beam. The other beam is directed toward the SLM and becomes the information beam. When the information beam passes through the SLM, portions of the light are blocked by the opaque areas of the page, and portions pass through the translucent areas. In this way, the information beam carries the image once it passes through the SLM
Page data (left) stored as a hologram (right)
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When the reference beam and the information beam rejoin on the same axis, they create a pattern of light interference ” the holography data. This joint beam carries the interference pattern to the photopolymer disc and stores it there as a hologram.
A memory system isn't very useful if you can't access the data you've stored. In the next section, we'll find out how the HVD data-retrieval system works.
4.3The HVD System: Reading Data
To read the data from an HVD, you need to retrieve the light pattern stored in the
hologram.
In the HVD read system, the laser projects a light beam onto the hologram ” a light beam that is identical to the reference beam (Read System 1 in the image above). The hologram diffracts this beam according to the specific pattern of light interference it's storing. The resulting light recreates the image of the page data that established the light-interference pattern in the first place. When this beam of light ” the reconstruction
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Page data stored in an HVD (left) and recreated by CMOS sensor (right) Now let's take a look at how HVD compares to other next-generation storage media. 5.How HVD Compares
While HVD is attempting to revolutionize data storage, other discs are trying to improve upon current systems. Two such discs are Blu-ray and HD-DVD, deemed the next-generation of digital storage. Both build upon current DVD technology to increase storage capacity. All three of these technologies are aiming for the high-definition video market, where speed and capacity count. So how does HVD stack up
Blu-ray HD-DVD HVD
Initial cost for recordable disc Approx. $18 Approx. $10 Approx. $120
Initial cost for Approx. recorder/player 1 $2,000 Approx.
$2,000 Approx.
$3,000
Initial storage capacity 54 GB 30 GB 300 GB
Read/write speed 36.5 Mbps 36.5 Mbps 1 Gbps

Conclusion
Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an advanced optical disc technology still in the research stage which would greatly increase storage over Blu-ray and HD-DVD optical disc systems. It employs a technique known as collinear holography, whereby two lasers, one red and one blue-green, are collimated in a single beam. The blue-green laser reads data encoded as laser interference fringes from a holographic layer near the top of the disc while the red laser is used to read servo information from a regular CD-style aluminium layer near the bottom. Servo information is used to monitor the position of the read head over the disc, similar to the head, track, and sector information on a conventional hard disk drive. On a CD or DVD this servo information is interspersed amongst the data. A dichroic mirror layer between the holographic data and the servo data reflects the blue-green laser while letting the red laser pass through. This prevents interference from refraction of the blue-green laser off the servo data pits and is an advance over past holographic storage media, which either experienced too much interference, or lacked the servo data entirely, making them incompatible with current CD and DVD drive technology .These disks have the capacity to hold up to 3.9 terabytes (TB) of information, which is approximately eighty times the capacity of Blu-ray Disc. The HVD also has a transfer rate of 1 Gbit/s.
FUTURE SCOPE
Dell monitoring advancements in optical technology and expects the cost and performance of CD-RW drives become more competitive with the magnetic formats. Dell plan to offer CD-RW/DVD ROM Combo Drives when reasonably priced. Reliable devices become available. These devices should eventually replace current CD-RW drive and offer convenience, large storage capacity that are backward compatible with previous CD formats, and DVD ROM readability. Dell expects DVD-RAM systems to be adopted by high end users initially. Rambo systems when available are expected to provide another system in a evolution to a universal RMSD providing a larger capacity drive capable of reading and writing to the most popular CD, DVD format.
HVD is still in the late stages of development, nothing is written in stone; but you've probably noticed that the projected introductory price for an HVD is a bit steep. An initial price of about $120 per disc will probably be a big obstacle to consumers. However, this price might not be so insurmountable to businesses, which are HVD developers' initial target audience. Optware and its competitors will market HVD's storage capacity and transfer speed as ideal for archival applications, with commercial systems available as soon as late 2006. Consumer devices could hit the market around 2010.
8, Bibliography
"Alliance touts holographic disc 'revolution'." The Register.
http://theregister.co.uk/2005/02/07/hvd_alliance founded/
"Holographic Storage Standards Eyed." Video/Imaging DesignLine.
http://videsignlineproducts/60405368
Optware Corporation
http://optware.co.jp/english/
Tom's Hardware Guide: HVD
http://tomshardwarebusiness/20050616/dvd_standards-07.html "What is holographic storage" InPhase Technologies. http://inphase-technologiestechnology/index.html wikipedia.com
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CONTENTS
Page
1. INTRODUCTION 01
2. REMOVABLE MEDIA STORAGE DEVICES 02
2.1 Floppy Disk 02
2.2 Optical Formats 02
2.3 CD-ROM 03
2.4 DVD-ROM 03
2.5 DVD-R 04
2.6 DVD-RAM 05
2.7 DVD-RW 05
2.8 +RW 06
2.9 Magneto-Optical Formats 06
3. HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC 07
3.1 How Holographic Disc Works 07
3.2 Basics Of Holographic Memory 08
3.3 Holographic Data Storage Basics 10
3.4 Holographic Versatile Disc 12
4. STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT 14
4.1 Holographic Disc Structure 14
4.2 The HVD System Writing Data 17
4.3 The HVD System Reading Data 20
5. HOW HVD COMPARES 22
6. CONCLUSION 23
7. FUTURE SCOPE 24
8. BIBLIOGRAPHY 25
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#6
[attachment=2366]

HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC

INTRODUCTION

Next-Next Generation Technology
Scientist J. V. Heerden came up with this idea in 1960
Media type : Ultra-high density optical disc
Encoding : MPEG-2, MPEG-4 AVC (H.264), and VC-1
Capacity theoretically up to 3.9 TB
Developed by HSD Forum
Usage Big Grinata storage,
:High-definition video & the possibility of ultra high
definition video

FEATURES

Data transfer rate : 1gbps.
The technology permits over 10 kilobits of data to be written and read in parallel with a single flash.
Most optical storage devices, such as a standard CD saves one bit per pulse. HVDs manage to store 60,000 bits per pulse in the same place.
1 HVD = 5800 CDs = 830 DVD =160 BLU-RAY

Holography vs photography

Black and white photograph
Contains Intensity distribution
Color photograph
Intensity and wavelength
Hologram
Intensity, phase, and sometimes wavelength

HOLOGRAPHY

INVENTED BY
SCIENTIST
GABOR IN 1947.
CONTAINS
INFORMATION
ABOUT AMPLITUDE
AND PHASE OF
OBJECT WAVE.

SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR (Slm)

Translates electronic data (0's and 1's) into
optical pattern of light and dark pixels.
Data is arranged in an array similar to a
checkerboard of usually 1M (million) bits.
By varying the angle of the reference
beam,wavelength or media position, many
holograms can be stored in the same
volume of storage material.


Hvd technology

HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography,'
Two laser rays, one blue-green and one red are used.
The role of the blue-green laser is to read the data encoded in the form of laser interference fringes from the holographic layer.
The red laser serves the purpose of a reference beam and also to read the servo info from the aluminum layer.

HVD STRUCTURE

1. Green writing/reading laser (532 nm)
2. Red positioning/addressing laser (650 nm)
3. Hologram (data)
4. Polycarbon layer
5. Photopolymeric layer (data-containing
layer)
6. Distance layers
7. Dichroic layer (reflecting green light)
8. Aluminium reflective layer (reflecting red light)
9. Transparent base
P. PIT

READ ONLY hvd

supports some irreversible
photochemical reaction
triggered by the bright
regions of the optical
interference pattern
material diffuses from darker to
brighter regions so that short
monomer chains can bind together to form long molecular chains

READ/WRITE hvd

Uses inorganic photorefractive crystals.
Electrons get photo-excited at the
bright fringes diffuse or drift and
are re-trapped at a dark fringe.
Trapped charge can be rearranged
by later illumination, so it is possible
to erase recorded holograms.

INTERESTING FACTS

It has been estimated that the books in the U.S. Library of Congress, the largest library in the world , could be stored on
six HVDs.
The pictures of every landmass on Earth - like the ones shown in Google Earth - can be stored on two HVDs.
With MPEG4 ASP encoding, a HVD can hold anywhere between 4,600-11,900 hours of video, which is enough for non-stop playing for a year.

COMPONENTS needed for HVD READER

A blue-green argon laser
Beam splitters to spilt the laser beams
Mirrors to direct the laser beams
LCD panels (spatial light modulator)
Lenses to focus the laser beams
Lithium-niobate crystals or photopolymers and
Charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras.
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#7
please read http://studentbank.in/report-holographic...ull-report
http://studentbank.in/report-holographic-memory--5241
http://studentbank.in/report-holographic...ars-report
http://studentbank.in/report-holographic...ull-report
for getting more information about Holographic memory and related devices
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#8
Holographic Versatile Disc
Abstract
Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology still in the research stage which would greatly increase storage over Blu-ray and HD DVD optical disc systems. It employs a technique known as collinear holography, whereby two lasers, one red and one blue-green, are collimated in a single beam. The blue-green laser reads data encoded as laser interference fringes from a holographic layer near the top of the disc while the red laser is used as the reference beam and to read servo information from a regular CD-style aluminium layer near the bottom
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#9
Holographic versatile disc
JUBIN MATHEW
S7-A

Overview
Introduction

Holography

HVD System

Conclusion

References

[attachment=7376]

Introduction
Optical Storage

Storage of data on an optically readable medium. Data is recorded by making marks in a pattern that can be read back with the aid of light.

Existing Optical Storage Media
CD

DVD

HD-DVD

BLU-RAY
Features

Holography
Process of storing information as optical interference pattern on a photo sensitive material.

Two coherent laser beams needed.

The beams intersect within the recording medium.


Interference pattern is stored as physical or chemical change.

Stored grating pattern diffracts incident light.

1. Two axis holography

2. Collinear holography

Two Axis Holography
Off-axially aligned coherent reference beam and information beam.
Recording Reconstruction








Disadvantages
Wavelength margin is very small (1nm).

Recording disc of transmission type.

Disc tilt margin ≈ 0°.

System is complex.








Collinear Holography
Co-axially aligned information beam and reference beam.

Information pattern in the centre surrounded by reference pattern.

Outer reference pattern is usually circular .


Recording Hologram
Read the Hologram
Read the Hologram
Advantages of Collinear Holography
Reference wavelength margin 3 times conventional holography .

Low coherent laser diode can be used.

Higher tilt margin.

Reflective disc.

HVD System
2-D page data patterns are recorded as volume holograms.

Uses 2 laser beams. 1. Green or Blue – Reading / writing 2. Red – Positioning / addressing

Laser diodes are flashed synchronously.


HVD Structure
Focusing And Tracking
Focus and Track Servo Mechanism
HVD Drive Optical Configuration
HVD Advantages
Higher storage capacity.

Selectable capacity recording format.

Good read / write performance.

Data security.
Present Status
HVD storage capacity : 100gb.

Structure similar to CD/DVD.

Data transfer rate : 125mbps.

Expensive





In The Future
Storage capacity : 3.9 TB

Data transfer rate: 1gb/s

Backward compatible drives.

Holographic Versatile Cards.
Conclusion
HVD is the next generation ultra high speed and ultra high density optical storage media.

Collinear holography solves practical issues of conventional holography.

System margins are wide enough to produce practical low cost HVD system.

References
Hideyoshi Horimai and Xiaodi Tan “Holographic Information Storage System :Today and Future.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics Vol.43,No:2,Feb.2007.

Y. Kaneko “Holographic Versatile Disc System” Media-Tech Conference, October 11, 2006.

Gregory J. Steckman, Allen Pu, and Demetri Psaltis “Storage density of shift-multiplexed holographic memory” 10 July 2001 Vol. 40, No. 20 Applied Optics.

J.Ashly, H.Coufal, B.Marcus, H.Guenther, M.P Bernal, R.M Shelby and C.M Jefferson “Holographic Data Storage” IBM . Research and Development. Vol. 44 No. 3 May 2000.



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#10
[attachment=7427]
This article is presented by:
Ranjit Kamal
Holographic Versatile Disc

CONTENTS


What is HVD ?
Holographic Versatile Disc Structure
Working Principal
HVD Write System
HVD Read System
How HVD compares Others ?
Advantages
HVD Alliance
HVD Forum
Conclusion
References

What is HVD ?


An HVD is an advanced optical disk that’s presently in the development stage. Polaroid scientist J van Heerden was the first to come up with the idea for holographic three-dimensional storage in 1960.
Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc
technology still in the research stage which would hold up to 3.9 terabytes (TB) of information .
The first step in understanding holographic memory is to understand what "holographic" means.
Holography : Holography is a method of recording patterns of light to produce a three-dimensional object.
Hologram : The recorded patterns of light are called a hologram

HVD Structure

Green writing/reading laser (532 nm)
Red positioning/addressing laser (650 nm)
Hologram (data)
Polycarbon layer
Photopolymeric layer (data-containing layer)
Distance layers
Dichotic layer (reflecting green light)
Aluminium reflective layer (reflecting red light)
Working Principle

HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography,' in which two laser rays, one blue-green and one red, are collimated into a single beam..

The blue-green laser reads data encoded as laser interference fringes from a holographic layer near the top of the disc while the red laser is used as the reference beam and to read servo information from a regular CD-style aluminium layer near the bottom.

Servo information is used to monitor the position of the read head over the disc, similar to the head, track, and sector information on a conventional hard disk drive.


HVD Write System

A simplified HVD system consists of the following main components:
Blue or green laser (532-nm wavelength in the test system)
Beam splitter/merger
Mirrors
Spatial light modulator (SLM)
CMOS sensor
Polymer recording medium


HVD Read System

To read the data from an HVD, you need to retrieve the light
pattern stored in the hologram.
In the HVD read system, the laser projects a light beam onto the hologram -- a light beam -- a light beam that is identical to the reference beam.
The hologram diffracts this beam according to the specific pattern of light interference it's storing.
The resulting light recreates the image of the page data that established the light-interference pattern in the first place. When this beam of light -- the reconstruction beam -- bounces back off the disc it travels to the CMOS sensor that reproduces the page data.


. How HVD compares Others ?
Advantages

High Storage capacity of 3.9 terabyte(TB) enables user to store large amount of data.
Records high-definition television (HDTV) without any quality loss.
Records one program while watching another on the disc.
Edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc.
Automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program.

HVD Alliance

The HVD Forum
The HVD FORUM (formerly the HVD Alliance) is a coalition of corporations purposed to provide an industry forum for testing and technical discussion of all aspects of HVD design & manufacturing.

Alps Electric Corporation, Ltd.
Optware Corporation
CMC Magnetics Corporation
Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc. (DIC)
EMTEC International (subsidiary of the MPO Group)
Fuji Photo Film Company, Ltd.
Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc.
LiteOn Technology Corporation
Mitsubishi Kagaku Media Company, Ltd. (MKM)

Conclusion

HVD will soon replace previous DVDs.
It is currently supported by more than 170 of the world's leading consumer electronics, personal computer, recording media, video game and music companies.
The format also has broad support from the major movie studios as a successor to today's DVD format.
Holographic Versatile Disc already has the backing of seven out of eight leading Hollywood studios. It will soon be able to enjoy a growing range of film entertainment with unsurpassed Full HD pictures and cinema-quality multi-channel sound.
References

http://tech-faqhvd.shtml.
http://electronics.howstuffworkshvd.html
http://en.wikipediawiki/Holographic_Versatile_Disc
http://eweekarticle2/0,1759,1759907,00.asp
http://newsGroup-aims-to-drastically-up-disc-storage/2100-1041_3-5562599.html


Reply
#11
presented by:
DARPAN KORAT

[attachment=8884]
Holographic Versatile Disc
What is HVD ?

Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology which
would hold up to 3.9 terabytes (TB) of information .
 An HVD is an advanced optical disk that’s presently in the development
stage. Polaroid scientist J van Heerden was the first to come up with
the idea for holographic three-dimensional storage in 1960.
 Holographic memory systems have been around for decades. They offer far more storage capacity than CDs and DVDs -- even "next-generation" DVDs like Blu-ray -- and their transfer rates leave conventional discs in the dust.
Basics of Holographic Disk
The first step in understanding holographic disk is to understand what "holographic" means. Holography is a method of recording patterns of light to produce a three dimensional object.
 The recorded patterns of light are called a Hologram
HVD Structure
 Green writing/reading laser (532 nm)
 Red positioning/addressing laser (650 nm)
 Hologram (data)
 Polycarbon layer
 Photopolymeric layer (data-containing layer)
 Distance layers
 Dichotic layer (reflecting green light)
 Aluminium reflective layer (reflecting red light)
Dimension of HVD
Working Principle
 HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography,' in which two laser rays, one is blue-green and another is red, are collimated into a single beam..
 The blue-green laser reads data encoded as laser interference fringes from a holographic layer near the top of the disc while the red laser is used as the reference beam and to read servo information from a regular CDstyle aluminium layer near the bottom.
 Servo information is used to monitor the position of the read head over the disc, similar to the head, track, and sector information on a conventional hard disk drive.
Reply
#12
[attachment=9275]
Holographic Versatile Disc
Introduction to HVD

• Optical disc
• Data storage up to 3.9 TB
• Data transfer rate is 1 Gbps
• Next-next generation technology
• HVD alliance, led by Optware Corporation, Japan
• Toshiba, Panasonic, Fuji photo film, Intel Capital and Konica Minolta
Basics of Holographic Memory
• Holography is a method of recording patterns of light to produce a 3-D object
• Recorded patterns of light are Hologram
• Focused beam of light, hence Laser
• Laser beam split into two: Reference & Information
• Reference remains unchanged
• Information beam encounters object, carries that image in its waveform
• These beams intersect creating Light Interference
• This is recorded on Photographic plate generating hologram
• Shine reference/reconstruction beam on Hologram
• Reflected wave consists the light pattern of the image stored in hologram
• Reconstructed wave sent to CMOS sensor to recreate original image
Closer look at HVD
• 2-axis Holographic optics
• Optware’s Collinear Holographic optics
- Two laser beams travel in same axis
- Strikes the recording medium at the same angle
- This enables smaller pickup
• Recording layer placed between 2 substrate layers
- Dichoric mirror layer reflects blue light, which reads data encoded as interference fringes
- Aluminum reflection layer reflects red light, which acts as reference beam, tracks the reading position
The HVD system: Writing data
• Laser source
• Beam splitter/merger
• Mirrors
• Spatial light modulator (SLM)
• CMOS sensor
• Photopolymer recording medium
• Information is encoded into binary data & stored in SLM
- 1’s & 0’s converted into opaque & translucent areas on a page
- This page acts as image through which info beam is going to pass
• Firing of laser beam
- portions of light are blocked by opaque areas of the page
- portions pass through the translucent areas
- thus info beam carries image
• When reference & information beam rejoin on same axis, creating a pattern of light interference i.e. the holography data
• This joint beam carries the interference pattern to the photopolymer disc & stores it there as a hologram.
Reply
#13
[attachment=9354]
1. INTRODUCTION
An HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc), a holographic storage media, is an advanced optical disk that's presently in the development stage. Polaroid scientist J.van Heerden was the first to come up with the idea for holographic three - dimensional storage in 1960. An HVD would be a successor to today's Blue-ray and HD-DVD technologies. It can transfer data at the rate of 1 Gigabit per second. The technology permits over 10 kilobits of data to be written and read in parallel with a single flash. The disk will store up to 3.9 terabyte (TB) of data on a single optical disk.
Holographic data storage, a potential next generation storage technology, offers both high storage density and fast readout rate. In this article, I discuss the physical origin of these attractive technology features, and the components and engineering required to realize them. The strengths and weaknesses of available write-once and read-writeable storage media are discussed, including the development issues of achieving non-volatile readout from read-write media. Systems issues such as the major noise sources and avenues for defeating or finessing them are detailed, including the potentials and pitfalls of phase- conjugate readout and holographic storage on spinning media. I conclude by describing the current state of holographic storage research and development efforts in the context of on going improvements to established storage technology.
1.1 BRIEF HISTORY
Although holography was conceived in the late 1940s, it was not considered a potential storage technology until the development of the laser in the 1960s. The resulting rapid development of holography for displaying 3-D images led researchers to realize that holograms could also store data at a volumetric density of as much as 1/ A3 where A, is the wave-length of the light beam used.
Since each data page is retrieved by an array of photo detectors in parallel, rather than bit-by-bit, the holographic scheme promises fast readout rates as well as high density. If a thousand holograms, each containing a million pixels, could be retrieved every second, for instance, then the output data rate would reach 1 Gigabit per second. Despite this attractive potential and fairly impressive early progress research into holographic data storage died out in the mid-1970s because suitable devices for the input and output of large pixilated 2-D data pages were just not available.
In the early 1990s, interest in volume-holographic data storage was rekindled by the availability of devices that could display and detect 2-D pages, including charge coupled devices (CCD), complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector chips and small liquid-crystal panels. The wide availability of these devices was made possible by the commercial success of hand-held camcorders, digital cameras, and video projectors. With these components in hand, holographic-storage researchers have begun to demonstrate the potential of their technology in the laboratory. By using the volume of the media, researchers have experimentally demonstrated that data can be stored at equivalent aerial densities of nearly 400 bits/sq. micron. (For comparison, a single-layer of a DVD disk stores data at ~ 4:7 bits/sq. micron) A readout rate of 10 Gigabit per second has also been achieved in the laboratory.
1.2 LONGEVITY
Holographic data storage can provide companies a method to preserve and archive information. The write-once, read many (WORM) approach to data storage would ensure content security, preventing the information from being overwritten or modified. Manufacturers believe this technology can provide safe storage for content without degradation for more than 50 years, far exceeding current data storage options. Counterpoints to this claim point out the evolution of data reader technology changes every ten years; therefore, being able to store data for 50-100 years would not matter if you could not read or access it.
1.3 FEATURES
 Data transfer rate: l gbps.
 The technology permits over 10 kilobits of data to be written and read in
parallel with a single flash.
 Most optical storage devices, such as a standard CD saves one bit per pulse.
 HVDs manage to store 60,000 bits per pulse in the same place.
 1 HVD = 5800 CDs = 830 DVD =160 BLU-RAY Discs.
2. UNDERLYING TECHNOLOGY
2.1 HOLOGRAPHY

Holographic data storage refers specifically to the use of holography to store and retrieve digital data. To do this, digital data must be imposed onto an optical wave front, stored holographically with high volumetric density, and then extracted from the retrieved optical wave front with excellent data fidelity.
A hologram preserves both the phase and amplitude of an optical wave front of interest - called the object beam - by recording the optical interference pattern between it and a second coherent optical beam - the reference beam. Figure 2.1 shows this process.
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#14
hey here is your report.... go through it
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#15
i need holographic versatile disk seminar topic plz help me
Reply
#16
Prsented By
Sapna lahoti

[attachment=12026]
Holographic Versatile Disc
INTRODUCTION

The first step in understanding holographic memory is to understand what "holographic" means.
Holography : Holography is a method of recording patterns of light to produce a three-dimensional object.
Hologram : The recorded paterns of light are called a hologram
HVD Structure
• Green writing/reading laser (532 nm)
• Red positioning/addressing laser (650 nm)
• Hologram (data)
• Polycarbon layer
• Photopolymeric layer (data-containing layer)
• Distance layers
• Dichotic layer (reflecting green light)
• Aluminium reflective layer (reflecting red light)
WORKING
• Working Principle
 HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography,' in which two laser rays, one blue-green and one red, are collimated into a single beam..
 The blue-green laser reads data encoded as laser interference fringes from a holographic layer near the top of the disc
 while the red laser is used as the reference beam and to read servo information from a regular CD-style aluminium layer near the bottom.
THE HVD System: Writing Data
• A simplified HVD system consists of the following main components:
• Blue or green laser (532-nm wavelength in the test system)
• Beam splitter/merger
• Mirrors
• Spatial light modulator (SLM)
• CMOS sensor
• Photopolymer recording medium
• RECORDING DATA
HVD Read System
 To read the data from an HVD, you need to retrieve the light pattern stored in the hologram.
 In the HVD read system, the laser projects a light beam onto the hologram -- a light beam -- a light beam that is identical to the reference beam.
 The hologram diffracts this beam according to the specific pattern of light interference it's storing.
 The resulting light recreates the image of the page data that established the light-interference pattern in the first place.
 When this beam of light -- the reconstruction beam -- bounces back off the disc it travels to the CMOS sensor that reproduces the page data.
STORAGE PATTERN
• Comparision
Advantages
• High Storage capacity of 3.9 terabyte(TB) enables user to store large amount of data.
• Records one program while watching another on the disc.
• Edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc.
• Automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program.
 The transfer rate of HVD is up to 1 gigabyte (GB) per second which is 40 times faster than DVD .
 An HVD stores and retrieves an entire page of data, approximately 60,000 bits of information, in one pulse of light, while a DVD stores and retrieves one bit of data in one pulse of light.
Disadvantages
• Manufacturing cost HDSS is very high and there is a lack of availability of resources which are needed to produce HDSS.
• However, all the holograms appear dimmer because their patterns must share the material's finite dynamic range.
• You would be unable to locate the data if there’s an error of even a thousandth of an inch.-
Conclusion
• HVD will soon replace previous DVDs.
• It is currently supported by more than 170 of the world's leading consumer electronics, personal computer, recording media, video game and music companies.
• The format also has broad support from the major movie studios as a successor to today's DVD format.
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#17
[attachment=12349]
INTRODUCTION
As computer systems continue to become faster, they will need a way to access larger amounts of data in shorter periods of time.
As our databases are increasing day by day, our system is growing at rate that is leaving behind our traditional modes of storing the data CD, DVD’s are now very small and inefficient as compared to our needs, today even our hard disks are also not that big enough and even if they stores our databases they take too much space.
Also another problem is that even if we have mediums enough to store our database we need its transfer rate to be high otherwise we would be waiting to much on their transfer to complete because all traditional modes don’t have good transfer rate .
So in our rapidly growing databases today we need an efficient way to store large information which also have good transfer rates.
So one solution to our problem is the HVD : Holographic versatile disk which is currently under development but it has a very large storage capacity and even a good transfer rate which use the holographic memory.
Holographic memory is a three-dimensional data storage system that can store information at high density inside the crystal or photopolymer.
What is Holographic Memory?
Holographic memory is a storage device that is being researched and slated as the storage device that will replace hard drives and DVDs in the future. It has the potential of storing up to 1 terabyte or one thousand gigabytes of data in a crystal the size of a sugar cube.
Holographic data storage is a potential replacement technology in the area of high-capacity data storage currently dominated by magnetic and conventional optical data storage. Magnetic and optical data storage devices rely on individual bits being stored as distinct magnetic or optical changes on the surface of the recording medium. Holographic data storage overcomes this limitation by recording information throughout the volume of the medium and is capable of recording multiple images in the same area utilizing light at different angles.
Additionally, whereas magnetic and optical data storage records information a bit at a time in a linear fashion, holographic storage is capable of recording and reading millions of bits in parallel, enabling data transfer rates greater than those attained by optical storage.
It is a memory that can store information in form of holographic image. As current storage techniques such as DVD reach the upper limit of possible data density (due to the diffraction limited size of the writing beams), holographic storage has the potential to become the next generation of storage media. Like other media, holographic media is divided into write once (where the storage medium undergoes some irreversible change), and rewritable media (where the change is reversible). Rewritable holographic storage can be achieved via the photo refractive effect in crystals.
HVD : HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISK
HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc) is the next generation in optical disk technology. HVD is still in a research phase that would phenomenally increase the disk storage capacities over the currently existing HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems. According to published statistics, when produced in full scale, HVDs will have a storage capacity of 3.9 terabytes (39,00 GB) and a data transfer rate of 1 GB/s, which is at least six times more than the speed of DVD players . This would, without a doubt, become a giant step in revolutionizing the disk storage industry.
This inference is a direct reference to the enormous storage capacity HVDs offer compared to HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems, both of which are yet to replace DVDs for mass optical storage. HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems offer a storage capacity of 75 and 90 GB respectively, but neither comes anywhere near the massive storage capacity of HVD.
HVD Technology
HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography,' in which two laser rays, one blue-green and one red, are collimated into a single beam. The role of the blue-green laser is to read the data encoded in the form of laser interference fringes from the holographic layer on the top, while the red laser serves the purpose of a reference beam and also to read the servo info from the aluminum layer - like in normal CDs - near the bottom of the disk. The servo info is meant to monitor the coordinates of the read head above the disk (this is similar to the track, head and sector information on a normal hard disk drive ).
How do the laser beams selectively pass through the layers? A layer of dichroic mirrors that exists between the holographic and servo data layer reflects back the blue-green laser beam, letting only the red laser pass through it to reach the servo information. By doing so, it actually eliminates the possible chances of the interference that can happen due to the refraction of blue-green laser off the servo data pits, a problem that had affected the efficiency of many holographic storage media in the past.
HVD STRUCTURE
The simple but revolutionary concept of HVD comes from inventor, Mr. Horimai’s long time experience in optical disk development and his idea to combine Collinear technology with the conventional optical disk technology.
The figure on the right shows the cross section of an HVD disc. As seen in this diagram, holographic recording layer is formed on top of a reflective layer. The simple optical setup of Collinear Technology has allowed the HVD disc to have a reflective layer on the substrate and address pits formed on this layer. This configuration is the key to apply Collinear Technology to commercial HVD products. These address pits and the servo technology to read them guarantee the interchangeability of HVD discs, ruggedness against vibration in the real environment, wide system margin against variety of HVD discs from different manufacturers. Of course the servo information also make random access easy.
Then, does HVD need special, sophisticated servo technology? The answer is "No." The servo technology and the address pits are, in fact, not different from those used in the current CD and DVD players and disks. The laser which is used to read address pits is 650nm red laser, also common with DVD players in the market.
Another layer called “Dichroic Mirror LayerEis placed between the holographic recording layer and the substrate to block the green or blue laser, which are used to read/write holographic information, to reach address pits, thus eliminates noise.
To make a long story short, HVD is a disc the holographic recording layer of which is formed on top of a conventional optical disk.
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#18
Presented by:
Manya Shukla
Mohd.Irfan Azam
Akanksha Verma

[attachment=13069]
HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC
Need of Storage
‘Storage’ refers to computer components and recording media that retain digital data for some interval of time.
It provides the core function of modern computers- “information retention”.
The different types of storage are semiconductor, magnetic and optical storage.
Semiconductor memory uses semiconductor based integrated circuits to store information.
NEED OF STORAGE(cont.)
Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization or a magnetically coated surface to store information.
Optical storage, the typical disc, stores information in deformities on the surface of the circular disc.
Eg.of optical storage are CD, CD-ROM, DVD, Blu-Ray Disc.
There have been some uncommon methoda also for storage purposes like:optical tape,molecular memory,holographic data storage.
WITH THE PROMISE OF TOMORROW’S OPERATING SYSTEMS INCORPORATING STUNNING GRAPHICAL INTERFACES THAT OFFER TRULY IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY AND NEXT GENERATION GAMES THAT WILL BLUR THE LINE BETWEEN FICTION AND REALITY,THE DEMANDS OF BEING ABLE TO QUICKLY STORE AND RETRIEVE ENORMOUS QUANTITY OF DATA IS EVER INCREASING.
HVD IS ANOTHER STEP TOWARDS A TRY TO MEET THESE DEMANDS.
INTRODUCTION
HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC(HVD)--
was developed betwee april 2004 and mid-2008.
Has Media type:Ultra high-density optical disc.
Was Developed by HSD Forum.
UsageBig Grinata Storage,
:High-definition video,
:Ultra High-definition video.
FEATURES
Data transfer rate is :1gbps
The technology permits over 10kilobits of data to be written and read in parallel in a single flash.
Most Optical Storage devices,such as a standard CD saves one bit per pulse.HVD’s manage to store 60,000 bits per pulse in the same place.
1 HVD=5800 CD’s=830 DVD’s=160 Blu-ray.
HOLOGRAPHY
Holography was invented by scientist Gabor,in 1947.
It is a technique that allows the light scatterred from an object to be recorded and reconstructed.
Holography can be use to store,retrieve and process information optically
Holography, at times is misconcepted as 3D-photogrophy,holography enables the scene to be viewed from different distances and at different orientation.
Contains information
about amplitude
and phase of
object
wave.
HOLOGRAPHIC MEMORY
Holographic Memory is a 3-dimensional data storage system that can store information at high density inside a crystal or photo polymer.
Holographic memory is a memory that can store information in the form of holographic image(hologram)
Unlike conventional memories,holographic memory use the volume to store the data.
HOLOGRAM
Hologram is a block or sheet of photosensitive material which records the diffraction of two light sources.
To create a hologram,laser light is used,that is splitted into a source beam and a refrence beam.
A Hologram preserves both the phase and amplitude of the object beam and reference beam.
COLLINEAR HOLOGRAPHY
HVD uses a technology called collinear holography
It uses two laser rays,one blue-green and one red.
These two beams are collimated into a single beam.
Blue-green laser reads the encoded data from the holographic laayer from the top.
Red laser serves the purpose of a refrence beam and also read the servo info.
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#19
to get information about the topic holographic data storage full report full report,ppt and related topic please refer the page link bellow

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http://seminarsprojects.in/attachment.php?aid=7720

http://studentbank.in/report-holographic-memory--5493
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#20
i have Downloaded pdf file of this seminar
but i need Word Document of "Nikesh Bharti" sminar report on HVD(Hoographic Versatile Device)
can any1 help me
send word file here
vaibhav09121991[at]gmail.com

Regard...
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#21

To get full information or details of HOLOGRAPHIC VERSATILE DISC A SEMINAR REPORT please have a look on the pages

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