Embryonics Approach Towards Integrated Circuits

Embryonics is embryonic electronics. Working of multicellular organization in living beings suggests that concepts from biology can be applied to development of new "embryonic" integrated circuits. The final objective is the development of VLSI circuits that can partially reconstruct themselves in case of a minor fault (self-repair) or completely reconstruct the original device in case of major fault (self-replication). These features are advantageous for applications depending on high reliability, like avionics and medical electronics. The basic primitive of the system is the molecule: the element of new FPGA- essentially a multiplexer associated with a programmable connection network. A finite set of molecules comprises a cell, i.e., a very simple processor associated to some memory resources. A finite set of cells comprises an organism, i.e., an application- specific multiprocessor system. The organism itself can self-replicate, giving rise to a population of identical organisms. The self-repair and self-replication are achieved by providing spare cells. This seminar report tries to bring out the basic concepts in the embryonics approach to realize VLSI circuits.

The growth and operation of all living beings are directed by the interpretation, in each of the their cells, of a chemical program, the DNA string or genome.This process is the source of inspiration for Embryonics (embryonic electronics),whose final objective is the design of highly roubst integrated circuits, endowed with properties usually associated with the living world: self repair (cicatrisation) and self-replication.The embryonics architecture is based on four hierarchical levels of organization.

1. The basic primitive of our system is the molecule, a multiplexer-based element of a novel programmable cicuit.
2. A finite set of molecules makes up a cell, essentially a small processor with an associated memory.
3. A finite set of cells makes up an organism,an application specific multiprocessor system.
4. The organism can itself replicate,giving rise to a population of identical organisms, capable of self replication and repair.

Each of the artificial cell is characterized by a fixed architecture .Multicellular arrays can realize a variety of different organisms, all capable of self replication and self repair.In order to allow for a wide range of application we then introduce a flexible architeture, realized using a new type of fine-grained field-programmable gate array whose basic element, our molecule, is essentially a programmable multiplexer.

Toward Embryonics
A human being consists of approximately 60 trillion cells.At each instant, in each of these 60 trillion cells, the genome, a ribbon of 2 billion characters, is decoded to produce the proteins needed for survival of the organism.The genome contains the ensemble of the genetic inheritance of the individual and, at the same time, the instructions for both the construction and operation of the organism.the parallel execution of 60 trillion genomes in as many cells occurs ceaselessly from conception to death of the individual.Faults are rare, and in majority of cases, successfully detected and repaired.This process is remarkable for its complexity and its precision.Moreover, it relies on completely discrete information :the struture of DNA (the chemical substrate of the genome) is a sequence of four bases, usually designated with letters A(adenine),C(cytosine),G(guanine) and T(thymine)

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