Submitted By:
Shimpi Tanmay R.


An automated highway system (AHS) or Smart Road is a proposed intelligent transportation system technology designed to provide for driverless cars on specific rights-of-way. It is most often touted as a means of traffic congestion relief, since it drastically reduces following distances and thus allows more cars to occupy a given stretch of road.
Every major city suffers from the problems that are related to increasing mobility demands. Cities have to deal with pollution, congestion and safety problems caused by increasing traffic. Traditional transport systems are not sufficient anymore to cope with these increasing problems.
With the exception of some automatically operated metro systems (Paris, London and Lille) and some recently introduced automated buses and people-movers (Clermont-Ferrand, Eindhoven and Capelle aan de IJssel), transport systems in the present-day European city are mostly of a traditional type.
automated highway system will contribute to innovative solutions that will allow increased mobility in a well-controlled manner, using technologies with low pollution, high safety levels and a much increased efficiency, using either a separate infrastructure or existing roads. In future mobility scenarios, such new transport systems will be part of the urban environment. These new transport systems will be the answer to the new mobility demands of the future society. In our vision, the urban mobility will be greatly supported by new transport system concepts, which are able to improve the efficiency of road transport in dense areas while at the same time help to reach the zero accident target and minimize nuisances.

In an automated highway system, the car will be out by the road rather than the driver. Connect sensors and communication devices the road and the vehicle is to maximize performance. Driver error can be reduced and eventually eliminated with full implementation.

The history of the automated highway system goes back to a working model that was displayed at the 1939 World Fair's General Motors Pavillion. During the 1950s and 1960s, researchers at General Motors refined driverless vehicles, including robotic trucks. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Robert Fenton of Ohio State University demonstrated driverless cars on a test track. Although the test was successful, the early results were crude and hardly workable.
By the late 1980s, advances in microprocessors, wireless communications and other electronic sensors prompted a renewed interest in the automated highway, leading to the formation of the Intelligent Transportation Society of America in 1988, whose goal was to foster the introduction of automated highways. In 1991, Congress called for a prototype system and the National Automated Highway System Consortium (NAHSC) was formed. The NAHSC is a public-private partnership composed of approximately 1,000 members representing federal government agencies, vehicle industry, state/local government agencies, highway design industry, vehicle electronics industry, environmental interest groups, trucking operators, transit operators, transportation users, and the insurance industry.
 The AHS program is a broad international effort “to provide the basis for, and transition to, the next major performance upgrade of the vehicle/highway system through the use of automated vehicle control technology.”
 The term “fully automated intelligent vehicle-highway system” is interpreted to mean a system that:
1. Evolves from today’s roads.
2. Fully automated
3. Operate in both urban and rural areas on highways
A five-layered architecture consisting of a network, link, planning, regulation and physical layers is proposed in for the development of AHS
Network : Control entering traffic and route traffic flow
within AHS network.
Link : Compute and broadcast activity plans.
Planning : Communicate and coordinate with peers and select one maneuver to be executed.
Regulation : Execute maneuvers such as join, split, lane change.Physical : Decouple lateral and longitudinal control.
Working of automated highway
With magnetometer sensors mounted in the front and rear bumpers,
vehicles are guided by a track of magnets planted in the pavement. The
magnets are about an inch in diameter and are embedded into the
pavement at the center of each lane. The magnets feed information
about the upcoming road, such as curves, merge lanes, or exits, to an
on-board computer for analysis. In a millisecond, the computer
determines the car's precise location in the lane and communicates to
the steering actuators which way to guide the car. To keep a safe speed
and traveling distance between vehicles, highly sensitive radar sensors
are used to locate the positions of other vehicles on the road. These
radar sensors communicate with the on-board computer, which then
controls the brakes and throttle to maintain the right speed and
distance. After exiting the Automated Highway, you'll take back control
of your vehicle on the surface roads.

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The concept of Automatic Highway System (AHS) defines a new relationship between the vehicles and the highway infrastructure. The AHS refers to a set of lanes designated on a limited access road where specially equipped vehicles are fully operated under automatic control. AHS uses vehicle and highway control technologies, which goes from the driver / operator to the carriage.

Throttle, steering and braking are controlled to provide automatic and safe and more convenient travel. The AHS also uses communication, sensor and barrier-identification techniques to identify and respond to external communication conditions. Vehicles and highways cooperate to coordinate movement of vehicles, avoid obstacles and improve traffic flow, improve safety and reduce the crowd. In essence, the concept of AHS combines intelligence on-board vehicle with intelligent technologies established on current highway infrastructure and communication technologies, which connect vehicles to highways infrastructure.

The idea of ​​automated driving took place almost 50 years ago when General Motors (GM) presented a view of vehicles under the automatic control of world fairs in 1939 in New York. The concept of automated vehicles controlled by mechanical systems and radio control in the 1950s research by industrial organizations After the computer's first appearance in the 1960s, researchers began to consider the possible use of computers to provide playback and longitudinal control and traffic management. The concept of the fully automated highway was initiated by GM in the late 70s as a sponsorship from the US Department of Transportation (DOT). During these times, the focus was placed on automated vehicles on a highway because the computers were not powerful enough to consider the fully automated highway system.

The progress of computing technologies, micro-electronics and sensors that provoked the commercial interest in technologies in the 1980s, which could increase driver capacity and perception, and both private and public researchers partially examined automatic products and services. Of Apart from others, since 1980, California Partners of Advanced Transportation and Highways (PATH) have made significant research and development in the field of highway automation. Since various transport technologies had emerged, which could help driving traffic on one hand and traffic efficiency on others, interest in fully automated driving or integrated auto-highway technologies grew once again.

With the passage of the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transport Capacity Act (ISTA), efforts were made to test the initial prototype and to fully automated vehicles and highways. This act is in the U.S. DOT has inspired the development of National Automated Highway System Research Program (NHSRP), which aims to develop specifications for the fully automated highway system concept, which will encourage the improvement and support of vehicle and highway technologies.

In 1994, the US Department of Transportation launched the National Highway System Consortium (NAHSC). Apart from the representatives of Union, Vehicle, Highway, Electronics and Communications industries, there were nine major categories of organizations including education, federal, state, regional and local government. The Consortium believed in the expansion of the program's expertise and resources and said that the collaborative approach between stakeholders would be important in generating common interest which would be essential in the initial development and deployment of fully automated highway system. Research is ongoing for this year, although it is largely shortened by the withdrawal of financial assistance for the National Automated Highway System Research Program (NAHSRP) by the American Transportation in 1997.

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