Student Seminar Report & Project Report With Presentation (PPT,PDF,DOC,ZIP)

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Seminar presented by : Bharath Reddy.K

Nanotechnology received a lot of attention with the never-seen-before enthusiasm because of its future potential that can literally revolutionize each field in which it is being exploited. In drug delivery, nanotechnology is just beginning to make an impact, because materials reduced to nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale. Drug delivery nanosystems constitute a significant portion of nanomedicine. Many of the current “nano” drug delivery systems, however, are remnants of conventional drug delivery systems that happen to be in the nanometer range, such as liposomes, polymeric micelles, nanoparticles, dendrimers, and nanocrystals. Liposomes and polymer micelles were first prepared in 1960’s, and nanoparticles and dendrimers in 1970’s. The importance of nanotechnology in drug delivery is in the concept and ability to manipulate molecules and supramolecular structures for producing devices with programmed functions. Conventional liposomes, polymeric micelles, and nanoparticles are now called “nanovehicles”. Due to nano particles, modern chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure, which are very useful in manufacturing variety of useful pharmaceuticals.
So nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials with a vast range of applications, in medicine and energy production. The main motto of nano drug delivery system is “target delivery system and controlled drug delivery system”, which reduces the unwanted side effects, and unwanted actions. Nano drug delivery system results in effective targeting and patient compliance.
Introduction: 2
This Seminar report discusses potential use of nanotechnology in drug delivery systems and pharmacotherapeutics.
Several areas of medical care are already benefiting from the advantages of nanotechnology. One of them is drug delivery, which is one of the key priorities in nanomedicine research along with diagnostics and regenerative medicine.
Drug delivery is being approached by nanomedicine by developing nanoscale particles or molecules to improve the bioavailability of a drug. Bioavailability of a drug is the presence of drug particles/molecules there where they are needed in the body and where they will do their best. The main focus of drug delivery is increasing the bioavailability to the maximum both at certain places in the body and over a period of time. This can be achieved by nanotechnology-based devices. Estimated 65 billion dollars per year are being wasted because of the poor bioavailability.
Drug delivery systems (nanoparticles) can be designed to improve the threapeutic and pharmaceutical properties of a drug. Nanoparticles have those unusual properties that significantly improve the drug delivery. Nanoparticles are small in size, so the cells accept them unlike other elements which are much bigger and they’re being rejected.
Drug delivery mechanisms are constantly being developed, including the ability to transfer drugs through cell membranes into the cytoplasm. This is important because many diseases can only be impeded by drugs that make it through the membrane.
Drug molecules can be used more efficiently by triggered response.
Molecules are placed in the patient’s body and they activate themselves only when encountering a particular signal. To convey sufficient dose of drug to lesion certain carriers are required so nano and mcro particles have got potential applications for administration of
therapeutic molecules. Nano drug delivery is about getting the right amount of medication to the right location at right time.
A nanoparticle is submicroscopic solid particle with a size ranging from 1-100 nm. We know that one nanometer is equal to 10 angstroms. Materials used in the preparation of nanoparticles are sterilizable, nontoxic, and biodegradable like albumin, ethylcellulose, gelatin polyesters etc.. Nanoparticles have been successfully applied to medical diagnostics by taking advantage to other rapid uptake by reticulo endothelial system and sequestration by liver Kupffer’s cells. The reticulo endothelial system consists of phagocytic cells designed to cleanse the bloodstream of bacteria, viruses, cell debris, and other unwanted foreign particles. Such specific cellular processing of nanoparticles points to the possibility of using nanoparticles to target drugs to the liver and phagocytic cells. To prolong the circulation, nanoparticles should be small enough(≤ 200 nm) or deformable to escape the simple filtration in the spleen. Besides size, the surface of nanoparticles can be modified to avoid opsonization. Opsonization is the adsorption of protein capable of interacting with surface receptors on phagocytic cells. PEGlyation (i.e attaching polyethylene glycol [PEG] to particles) is perhaps the most explored approach to avoiding protein adsorption. PEG can be adsorbed or covalently linked to the surface of particles. The PEG chains exposed on the particle surfaces confer hydrophilicity to the particles and thus effectively suppress the binding ot opsonins through hydrophobic interaction. PEG is also believed to sterically hinder opsonins from interaction. At present, few nanoparticles exist as extended-release systems for delivery of the entrapped drug over a period of days. The permeable vascular endothelia in lymph nodes and bone marrow are capable of removing small-sized particles
from the circulation. Hence, nanoparticles can promise targeted delivery to inflammation sites such as arthritic joints, to solid tumors, and to hematological malignancies simply because of size exclusion/permeation effect.
Drug delivery technology important to Pharmaceutical industry :
Obviously drug delivery technology is important to Pharmaceutical industry as
Drug delivery formulations involve low cost research compared that for discovery of new molecule.
Minimizing the drug use would significantly reduce the effective cost of drug which would give financial relief to the patients
Novel means of delivery particularly using nano carriers can allow branded drugs to be rescued from abyss of generic competition(may be called resurrection of drug)
1.Reduced side effects
2.Continuous dosing (sustained release)
3.Improved mobility
4.Improved efficacy
5.Reduced environmental impact (elimination of CFC’s)
6.Effective Targeting
7.Patient Compliance
8.Cost effectiveness
9.Product life extension
10.Prevention of drug from biological degradation.
Why should we use nano drug delivery system ?
Drugs with narrow therapeutic indexes create a major challenge for pharmaceutical scientists ,during their developments. Application of nanotechnology for the delivery of such drugs can significantly overcome this problem.
We are using nano drug delivery system for target drug delivey, why means target drug delivery implies selective and effective localization of drug into the targets at therapeutic concentrations with limited access to nontarget sites. A nano drug delivery system is preferred in the following situations.
1.Pharmaceutical: drug instability, low solubility.
2.Pharmacokinetic(what body does to the drug): short half-life, large volume of distribution, poor absorption.
3.pharmacodynamic(what drug does to the body):low specificity, low therapeutic index.
Targeted drug delivery may provide maximum therapeutic activity by preventing drug degradation or inactivation during transit it target sites. Meanwhile , it can protect the body from adverse effects because of inappropriate disposition, and minimize toxicity of potent of drugs by reducing dose. An ideal targeted delivery system should be nontoxic, biocompatible, biodegradable, and physicochemicaly stable in vivo and in vitro. The preparation of the delivery system must be reasonably simple, reproducible, and cost –effective.
Drug delivery carriers:
Drug delivery carriers are useful for carrying the drug from site of administration to site of action. Some of the drug delivery carriers include:

This article is presented by:
K.Bharath Reddy,
Dept. of Biotechnology



Drug delivery

Movement of drug from the site of administration.



Nanotehcnology based drug delivery.

Methods of Drug Delivery

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Block copolymers are now under investigation

PEO-block-PLA or PEO-block-PLGA

PEO-block-PPO-block-PEO micelles inhibition of p-glycoprotein

PEO-block-poly(beta-benzyl-1-aspartate)------------amphotericin B



Taxol delivery using nanoparticles in Phase 2 clinical trial stage.

Improved ophthalmic delivery formulation using smart hydrogel nanoparticles.

Oral insulin.

Amphotericin B formulation.

Cancer treatment and diagnosis